Welcome!

Websphere Authors: Liz McMillan, David H Deans, Elizabeth White, Judith Hurwitz, Pat Romanski

Related Topics: Cloud Expo

Cloud Expo: Blog Feed Post

A Formula for Just in Time Provisioning in the Cloud

Traditional Architectures and Deployment Models is Superior to Cloud Computing in Provisioning

imageOne of the ways in which traditional architectures and deployment models is actually superior (yes, I said superior) to cloud computing is in provisioning.  Before you label me a cloud heretic, let me explain. In traditional deployment models capacity is generally allocated based on anticipated peaks in demand. Because the time to acquire, deploy, and integrate hardware into the network and application infrastructure this process is planned for and well-understood, and the resources required are in place before they are needed. In cloud computing, the benefit is that the time required to acquire those resources is contracted to virtually nothing, making capacity planning much more difficult. The goal is just-in-time provisioning – resources are not provisioned until you are sure you’re going to need them because part of the value proposition of cloud and highly virtualized infrastructure is that you don’t pay for resources until you need them. But it’s very hard to provision just-in-time and sometimes the result will end up being almost-but-not-quite-in-time. Here’s a cute [whale | squirrel | furry animal] to look at until service is restored.

While fans of Twitter’s fail whale are loyal and everyone will likely agree its inception and subsequent use bought Twitter more than a bit of patience with its often times unreliable service, not everyone will be as lucky or have customers as understanding as Twitter. We’d all really rather prefer not to see the Fail Whale, regardless of how endearing he (she? it?) might be.

But we also don’t want to overprovision and potentially end up spending more money than we need to. So how can these two needs be balanced?


THE VARIABLES

The first thing we need to do is know, in a given cloud, how long it will take to provision capacity and put it into the rotation. It would be nice if cloud providers offered a service devops could query to get the “current wait time” (a la customer service queues) but until then this timing will certainly need to be obtained by simply keeping track yourself.

The other “constant” (if there is such a thing in a elastic environment) is the capacity of the instances you are using. We’ll consider this a constant at this point because honestly, we’re not ready to move to the higher levels of enlightenment (and programmability) required to dynamically determine this value – though that will most certainly be the subject of a future, future post. Capacity needs to be in units measurable by the solution aggregating requests (a strategic point of control). This is almost certainly a Load balancer or application delivery controller of some kind, as these components are what enable elastic scalability and basically make cloud work. Typical units might be RPS (requests per second) but because of differences in the way different types of requests consume resources it may be easier and more consistent across applications to use connections, as in “concurrent open connections” as it is one of the limiting factors on capacity of application services.

The other two variables we need are only available at run-time, dynamically. You need to know the existing load – in the same units as capacity – and the current resource consumption rate. The resource consumption rate should be in the same units as capacity and in the same time unit as time to provision. If that’s minutes, use minutes. If that’s seconds, use seconds, and so on. It should be noted that the resource consumption rate is the harder of the two to obtain, requiring access to the historical performance statistics of the aggregating component (the load balancer).

But let’s assume you can and do have all these variables. How is that useful?


THE FORMULA

image

The formula is actually a fairly simple one once you’ve got the variables. You’re trying to figure out how much time you have before capacity is depleted (and hoping that the answer is smaller than the time to provision). Just-in-time provisioning, as the term implies, is an attempt to formulaically determine when to start the provisioning process such that capacity always meets demand without over-provisioning. Now, you’re always hedging your bets that a high resource consumption rate will continue in the next “time to provision”. It may be the case that the “spike” is over before the new instance is provisioned, but in this case you’re better safe than sorry, right? Unless your customers like seeing a [whale | squirrel | furry animal] and don’t mind the wait.

Consider the following example:

Total capacity right now is 1000 connections. The existing load is 800 connections. Connections are currently being consumed at a rate of 200 per minute. Provisioning more capacity takes 5 minutes. 1000image – 800 = 200 / 200 per minute = 1 minute of capacity left.

Provisioning should have begun at least 4 minutes ago, and optimally 9 minutes ago (too many years developing software for me – fudge factor included) to ensure capacity was available. In this situation, someone is getting a picture of a [whale | squirrel | furry animal].

The trick for devops is to tune the threshold at which the provisioning process begins. Too soon and you might be wasting resources (and money), too late and you end up with timeouts and angry users. Devops needs a way to programmatically evaluate the results and decide, based on the application (it may be more sensitive to failure than others) and the business significance of the transaction (purchase processes may need more warning than search or general browsing), when it is appropriate to start provisioning in such a way as to ensure availability without incurring a lot of cost overhead.


DYNAMIC INFRASTRUCTURE can ENABLE THIS TODAY

Now I’m sure this sounds like something out of science fiction, but it’s not. The variables can be obtained, if not easily, and the formula can easily be codified into scripts or management applications that enable this entire process to be automated. At a minimum, it should be possible for any skilled devop (developer or operations focused) to create a script/application/widget/gadget that gathers the data required and displays an alert when it’s time to provision – I suggest a nice HTML interface that encloses the entire page in BLINK tags, because nothing says FIX THIS NOW than BLINKING TEXT, right?

Regardless of how it’s actually to put to use, just-in-time provisioning is the goal of agile operations. How that happens is by leveraging cloud computing and highly virtualized data centers and combining that flexibility with the agility of a dynamic infrastructure. Remember, Infrastructure 2.0 isn’t just about configuration through automation. That’s nice, but it’s not the whole enchilada. It’s also about dynamism and flexibility at run-time, in providing actionable data and capabilities that allow elastic scalability to be truly elastic.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Lori MacVittie

Lori MacVittie is responsible for education and evangelism of application services available across F5’s entire product suite. Her role includes authorship of technical materials and participation in a number of community-based forums and industry standards organizations, among other efforts. MacVittie has extensive programming experience as an application architect, as well as network and systems development and administration expertise. Prior to joining F5, MacVittie was an award-winning Senior Technology Editor at Network Computing Magazine, where she conducted product research and evaluation focused on integration with application and network architectures, and authored articles on a variety of topics aimed at IT professionals. Her most recent area of focus included SOA-related products and architectures. She holds a B.S. in Information and Computing Science from the University of Wisconsin at Green Bay, and an M.S. in Computer Science from Nova Southeastern University.

@ThingsExpo Stories
We heard for many years how developing nations would be able to develop mobile-phone networks quickly, perhaps even leapfrog developed nations, because their lack of traditional, wired networks would not inhibit them from deploying the new technology. Now there is talk of history repeating itself with the Industrial Internet--a key aspect of the emerging Internet of Things. For example, Guo Ping, Deputy Chairman of the Board of Chinese electronics giant Huawei, said in a recent report from the World Economic Forum, "The Industrial Internet will afford emerging markets a unique opportunity ...
Avnet, Inc. has announced that it ranked No. 4 on the InformationWeek Elite 100 – a list of the top business technology innovators in the U.S. Avnet was recognized for the development of an innovative cloud-based training system that serves as the foundation for Avnet Academy – the company’s education and training organization focused on technical training around top IT vendor technologies. The development of this system allowed Avnet to quickly expand its IT-related training capabilities around the world, while creating a new service that Avnet and its IT solution providers can offer to their...
Ayla Networks, whose agile Internet of Things (IoT) platform makes it easy for manufacturers to deliver secure, connected products, today announced it has been included in the list of "Cool Vendors" in the Internet of Things report by Gartner, Inc. “Gartner knows how important it is that manufacturers of all kinds of products have the right IoT solution to help turn their products into connected ‘things,’” said David Friedman, CEO and co-founder of Ayla Networks. “The market for Ayla’s IoT platform has accelerated dramatically this year compared to last year. Today’s largest manufacturers ar...
SYS-CON Events announced today that B2Cloud, a provider of enterprise resource planning software, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. B2cloud develops the software you need. They have the ideal tools to help you work with your clients. B2Cloud’s main solutions include AGIS – ERP, CLOHC, AGIS – Invoice, and IZUM
The Internet of Things Maturity Model (IoTMM) is a qualitative method to gauge the growth and increasing impact of IoT capabilities in an IT environment from both a business and technology perspective. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tony Shan will first scan the IoT landscape and investigate the major challenges and barriers. The key areas of consideration are identified to get started with IoT journey. He will then pinpoint the need of a tool for effective IoT adoption and implementation, which leads to IoTMM in which five maturity levels are defined: Advanced, Dynamic, Optimized, Primitive,...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MangoApps will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY., and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MangoApps provides private all-in-one social intranets allowing workers to securely collaborate from anywhere in the world and from any device. Social, mobile, and easy to use. MangoApps has been named a "Market Leader" by Ovum Research and a "Cool Vendor" by Gartner...
The world's leading Cloud event, Cloud Expo has launched Microservices Journal on the SYS-CON.com portal, featuring over 19,000 original articles, news stories, features, and blog entries. DevOps Journal is focused on this critical enterprise IT topic in the world of cloud computing. Microservices Journal offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. Follow new article posts on Twitter at @MicroservicesE
Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities. Accordingly, attendees at the upcoming 16th Cloud Expo at the Javits Center in New York June 9-11 will find fresh new content in a new track called PaaS | Containers & Microservices Containers are not being considered for the first time by the cloud community, but a current era of re-consideration has pushed them to the top of the cloud agenda. With the launch of Docker's initial release in March of 2013, interest was revved up several notches. Then late last...
There is no doubt that Big Data is here and getting bigger every day. Building a Big Data infrastructure today is no easy task. There are an enormous number of choices for database engines and technologies. To make things even more challenging, requirements are getting more sophisticated, and the standard paradigm of supporting historical analytics queries is often just one facet of what is needed. As Big Data growth continues, organizations are demanding real-time access to data, allowing immediate and actionable interpretation of events as they happen. Another aspect concerns how to deliver ...
WebRTC defines no default signaling protocol, causing fragmentation between WebRTC silos. SIP and XMPP provide possibilities, but come with considerable complexity and are not designed for use in a web environment. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Matthew Hodgson, technical co-founder of the Matrix.org, discussed how Matrix is a new non-profit Open Source Project that defines both a new HTTP-based standard for VoIP & IM signaling and provides reference implementations.
So I guess we’ve officially entered a new era of lean and mean. I say this with the announcement of Ubuntu Snappy Core, “designed for lightweight cloud container hosts running Docker and for smart devices,” according to Canonical. “Snappy Ubuntu Core is the smallest Ubuntu available, designed for security and efficiency in devices or on the cloud.” This first version of Snappy Ubuntu Core features secure app containment and Docker 1.6 (1.5 in main release), is available on public clouds, and for ARM and x86 devices on several IoT boards. It’s a Trend! This announcement comes just as...
The security devil is always in the details of the attack: the ones you've endured, the ones you prepare yourself to fend off, and the ones that, you fear, will catch you completely unaware and defenseless. The Internet of Things (IoT) is nothing if not an endless proliferation of details. It's the vision of a world in which continuous Internet connectivity and addressability is embedded into a growing range of human artifacts, into the natural world, and even into our smartphones, appliances, and physical persons. In the IoT vision, every new "thing" - sensor, actuator, data source, data con...
The WebRTC Summit 2015 New York, to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY, announces that its Call for Papers is open. Topics include all aspects of improving IT delivery by eliminating waste through automated business models leveraging cloud technologies. WebRTC Summit is co-located with 16th International Cloud Expo, @ThingsExpo, Big Data Expo, and DevOps Summit.
SYS-CON Events announced today the IoT Bootcamp – Jumpstart Your IoT Strategy, being held June 9–10, 2015, in conjunction with 16th Cloud Expo and Internet of @ThingsExpo at the Javits Center in New York City. This is your chance to jumpstart your IoT strategy. Combined with real-world scenarios and use cases, the IoT Bootcamp is not just based on presentations but includes hands-on demos and walkthroughs. We will introduce you to a variety of Do-It-Yourself IoT platforms including Arduino, Raspberry Pi, BeagleBone, Spark and Intel Edison. You will also get an overview of cloud technologies s...
The Internet of Things is not new. Historically, smart businesses have used its basic concept of leveraging data to drive better decision making and have capitalized on those insights to realize additional revenue opportunities. So, what has changed to make the Internet of Things one of the hottest topics in tech? In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Gray, Director, Embedded and Internet of Things, discussed the underlying factors that are driving the economics of intelligent systems. Discover how hardware commoditization, the ubiquitous nature of connectivity, and the emergence of Big Data a...
Scott Jenson leads a project called The Physical Web within the Chrome team at Google. Project members are working to take the scalability and openness of the web and use it to talk to the exponentially exploding range of smart devices. Nearly every company today working on the IoT comes up with the same basic solution: use my server and you'll be fine. But if we really believe there will be trillions of these devices, that just can't scale. We need a system that is open a scalable and by using the URL as a basic building block, we open this up and get the same resilience that the web enjoys.
SYS-CON Media announced today that @WebRTCSummit Blog, the largest WebRTC resource in the world, has been launched. @WebRTCSummit Blog offers top articles, news stories, and blog posts from the world's well-known experts and guarantees better exposure for its authors than any other publication. @WebRTCSummit Blog can be bookmarked ▸ Here @WebRTCSummit conference site can be bookmarked ▸ Here
In his session at WebRTC Summit, Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, will look at creating interactive communications via the web by adding messaging, file transfer, and group communication (group chat and audio/video conferencing) into the web experience. He will also discuss potential applications of this technology in areas including B2B, B2C, P2P, and gaming. Peter Dunkley is Technical Director at Acision. He graduated from The University of Edinburgh in 2000 with a BSc (Hons) in Computer Science. After graduation Peter worked on a PSTN switch developing signalling stacks for SS...
It's time to put the "Thing" back in IoT. Whether it’s drones, robots, self-driving cars, ... There are multiple incredible examples of the power of IoT nowadays that are shadowed by announcements of yet another twist on statistics, databases, .... Sorry, I meant, Big Data(TM), tiered storage(TM), complex systems(TM), smart nations(TM), .... In his session at WebRTC Summit, Dr Alex Gouaillard, CTO and Co-Founder of Temasys, will discuss the concrete, cool, examples of IoT already happening today, and how mixing all those different sources of visual and audio input can make your life happier ...
What exactly is a cognitive application? In her session at 16th Cloud Expo, Ashley Hathaway, Product Manager at IBM Watson, will look at the services being offered by the IBM Watson Developer Cloud and what that means for developers and Big Data. She'll explore how IBM Watson and its partnerships will continue to grow and help define what it means to be a cognitive service, as well as take a look at the offerings on Bluemix. She will also check out how Watson and the Alchemy API team up to offer disruptive APIs to developers.