Welcome!

IBM Cloud Authors: Pat Romanski, Dan Sarel, Tim Hinds, Liz McMillan, John Basso

Related Topics: @CloudExpo

@CloudExpo: Blog Feed Post

A Formula for Just in Time Provisioning in the Cloud

Traditional Architectures and Deployment Models is Superior to Cloud Computing in Provisioning

imageOne of the ways in which traditional architectures and deployment models is actually superior (yes, I said superior) to cloud computing is in provisioning.  Before you label me a cloud heretic, let me explain. In traditional deployment models capacity is generally allocated based on anticipated peaks in demand. Because the time to acquire, deploy, and integrate hardware into the network and application infrastructure this process is planned for and well-understood, and the resources required are in place before they are needed. In cloud computing, the benefit is that the time required to acquire those resources is contracted to virtually nothing, making capacity planning much more difficult. The goal is just-in-time provisioning – resources are not provisioned until you are sure you’re going to need them because part of the value proposition of cloud and highly virtualized infrastructure is that you don’t pay for resources until you need them. But it’s very hard to provision just-in-time and sometimes the result will end up being almost-but-not-quite-in-time. Here’s a cute [whale | squirrel | furry animal] to look at until service is restored.

While fans of Twitter’s fail whale are loyal and everyone will likely agree its inception and subsequent use bought Twitter more than a bit of patience with its often times unreliable service, not everyone will be as lucky or have customers as understanding as Twitter. We’d all really rather prefer not to see the Fail Whale, regardless of how endearing he (she? it?) might be.

But we also don’t want to overprovision and potentially end up spending more money than we need to. So how can these two needs be balanced?


THE VARIABLES

The first thing we need to do is know, in a given cloud, how long it will take to provision capacity and put it into the rotation. It would be nice if cloud providers offered a service devops could query to get the “current wait time” (a la customer service queues) but until then this timing will certainly need to be obtained by simply keeping track yourself.

The other “constant” (if there is such a thing in a elastic environment) is the capacity of the instances you are using. We’ll consider this a constant at this point because honestly, we’re not ready to move to the higher levels of enlightenment (and programmability) required to dynamically determine this value – though that will most certainly be the subject of a future, future post. Capacity needs to be in units measurable by the solution aggregating requests (a strategic point of control). This is almost certainly a Load balancer or application delivery controller of some kind, as these components are what enable elastic scalability and basically make cloud work. Typical units might be RPS (requests per second) but because of differences in the way different types of requests consume resources it may be easier and more consistent across applications to use connections, as in “concurrent open connections” as it is one of the limiting factors on capacity of application services.

The other two variables we need are only available at run-time, dynamically. You need to know the existing load – in the same units as capacity – and the current resource consumption rate. The resource consumption rate should be in the same units as capacity and in the same time unit as time to provision. If that’s minutes, use minutes. If that’s seconds, use seconds, and so on. It should be noted that the resource consumption rate is the harder of the two to obtain, requiring access to the historical performance statistics of the aggregating component (the load balancer).

But let’s assume you can and do have all these variables. How is that useful?


THE FORMULA

image

The formula is actually a fairly simple one once you’ve got the variables. You’re trying to figure out how much time you have before capacity is depleted (and hoping that the answer is smaller than the time to provision). Just-in-time provisioning, as the term implies, is an attempt to formulaically determine when to start the provisioning process such that capacity always meets demand without over-provisioning. Now, you’re always hedging your bets that a high resource consumption rate will continue in the next “time to provision”. It may be the case that the “spike” is over before the new instance is provisioned, but in this case you’re better safe than sorry, right? Unless your customers like seeing a [whale | squirrel | furry animal] and don’t mind the wait.

Consider the following example:

Total capacity right now is 1000 connections. The existing load is 800 connections. Connections are currently being consumed at a rate of 200 per minute. Provisioning more capacity takes 5 minutes. 1000image – 800 = 200 / 200 per minute = 1 minute of capacity left.

Provisioning should have begun at least 4 minutes ago, and optimally 9 minutes ago (too many years developing software for me – fudge factor included) to ensure capacity was available. In this situation, someone is getting a picture of a [whale | squirrel | furry animal].

The trick for devops is to tune the threshold at which the provisioning process begins. Too soon and you might be wasting resources (and money), too late and you end up with timeouts and angry users. Devops needs a way to programmatically evaluate the results and decide, based on the application (it may be more sensitive to failure than others) and the business significance of the transaction (purchase processes may need more warning than search or general browsing), when it is appropriate to start provisioning in such a way as to ensure availability without incurring a lot of cost overhead.


DYNAMIC INFRASTRUCTURE can ENABLE THIS TODAY

Now I’m sure this sounds like something out of science fiction, but it’s not. The variables can be obtained, if not easily, and the formula can easily be codified into scripts or management applications that enable this entire process to be automated. At a minimum, it should be possible for any skilled devop (developer or operations focused) to create a script/application/widget/gadget that gathers the data required and displays an alert when it’s time to provision – I suggest a nice HTML interface that encloses the entire page in BLINK tags, because nothing says FIX THIS NOW than BLINKING TEXT, right?

Regardless of how it’s actually to put to use, just-in-time provisioning is the goal of agile operations. How that happens is by leveraging cloud computing and highly virtualized data centers and combining that flexibility with the agility of a dynamic infrastructure. Remember, Infrastructure 2.0 isn’t just about configuration through automation. That’s nice, but it’s not the whole enchilada. It’s also about dynamism and flexibility at run-time, in providing actionable data and capabilities that allow elastic scalability to be truly elastic.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Lori MacVittie

Lori MacVittie is responsible for education and evangelism of application services available across F5’s entire product suite. Her role includes authorship of technical materials and participation in a number of community-based forums and industry standards organizations, among other efforts. MacVittie has extensive programming experience as an application architect, as well as network and systems development and administration expertise. Prior to joining F5, MacVittie was an award-winning Senior Technology Editor at Network Computing Magazine, where she conducted product research and evaluation focused on integration with application and network architectures, and authored articles on a variety of topics aimed at IT professionals. Her most recent area of focus included SOA-related products and architectures. She holds a B.S. in Information and Computing Science from the University of Wisconsin at Green Bay, and an M.S. in Computer Science from Nova Southeastern University.

@ThingsExpo Stories
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to massively disrupt IoT. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, AJ Abdallat, CEO of Beyond AI, will discuss what the five main drivers are in Artificial Intelligence that could shape the future of the Internet of Things. AJ Abdallat is CEO of Beyond AI. He has over 20 years of management experience in the fields of artificial intelligence, sensors, instruments, devices and software for telecommunications, life sciences, environmental monitoring, process...
Increasing IoT connectivity is forcing enterprises to find elegant solutions to organize and visualize all incoming data from these connected devices with re-configurable dashboard widgets to effectively allow rapid decision-making for everything from immediate actions in tactical situations to strategic analysis and reporting. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Shikhir Singh, Senior Developer Relations Manager at Sencha, will discuss how to create HTML5 dashboards that interact with IoT devic...
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, will provide tips on how to be successful in large scale machine lear...
The IoTs will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and share the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the development proc...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ericsson has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Ericsson is a world leader in the rapidly changing environment of communications technology – providing equipment, software and services to enable transformation through mobility. Some 40 percent of global mobile traffic runs through networks we have supplied. More than 1 billion subscribers around the world re...
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.
There is an ever-growing explosion of new devices that are connected to the Internet using “cloud” solutions. This rapid growth is creating a massive new demand for efficient access to data. And it’s not just about connecting to that data anymore. This new demand is bringing new issues and challenges and it is important for companies to scale for the coming growth. And with that scaling comes the need for greater security, gathering and data analysis, storage, connectivity and, of course, the...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Klein, CEO and Co-founder of Rachio, will discuss next generation communities that are using IoT to create more sustainable, intelligent communities. One example is Sterling Ranch, a 10,000 home development that – with the help of Siemens – will integrate IoT technology into the community to provide residents with energy and water savings as well as intelligent security. Everything from stop lights to sprinkler systems to building infrastructures will run ef...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Fusion, a leading provider of cloud services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Fusion, a leading provider of integrated cloud solutions to small, medium and large businesses, is the industry's single source for the cloud. Fusion's advanced, proprietary cloud service platform enables the integration of leading edge solutions in the cloud, including cloud...
Digital payments using wearable devices such as smart watches, fitness trackers, and payment wristbands are an increasing area of focus for industry participants, and consumer acceptance from early trials and deployments has encouraged some of the biggest names in technology and banking to continue their push to drive growth in this nascent market. Wearable payment systems may utilize near field communication (NFC), radio frequency identification (RFID), or quick response (QR) codes and barcodes...
The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things necessitates that our physical and cognitive relationship with wearable technology will change rapidly in the near future. This advent means logging has become a thing of the past. Before, it was on us to track our own data, but now that data is automatically available. What does this mean for mHealth and the "connected" body? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Lisa Calkins, CEO and co-founder of Amadeus Consulting, will discuss the impact of wea...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DatacenterDynamics has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7–9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. DatacenterDynamics is a brand of DCD Group, a global B2B media and publishing company that develops products to help senior professionals in the world's most ICT dependent organizations make risk-based infrastructure and capacity decisions.
The IoT has the potential to create a renaissance of manufacturing in the US and elsewhere. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Florent Solt, CTO and chief architect of Netvibes, will discuss how the expected exponential increase in the amount of data that will be processed, transported, stored, and accessed means there will be a huge demand for smart technologies to deliver it. Florent Solt is the CTO and chief architect of Netvibes. Prior to joining Netvibes in 2007, he co-founded Rift Technol...
We’ve worked with dozens of early adopters across numerous industries and will debunk common misperceptions, which starts with understanding that many of the connected products we’ll use over the next 5 years are already products, they’re just not yet connected. With an IoT product, time-in-market provides much more essential feedback than ever before. Innovation comes from what you do with the data that the connected product provides in order to enhance the customer experience and optimize busi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Stratoscale, the software company developing the next generation data center operating system, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Stratoscale is revolutionizing the data center with a zero-to-cloud-in-minutes solution. With Stratoscale’s hardware-agnostic, Software Defined Data Center (SDDC) solution to store everything, run anything and scale everywhere...
Angular 2 is a complete re-write of the popular framework AngularJS. Programming in Angular 2 is greatly simplified – now it's a component-based well-performing framework. This immersive one-day workshop at 18th Cloud Expo, led by Yakov Fain, a Java Champion and a co-founder of the IT consultancy Farata Systems and the product company SuranceBay, will provide you with everything you wanted to know about Angular 2.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Men & Mice, the leading global provider of DNS, DHCP and IP address management overlay solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The Men & Mice Suite overlay solution is already known for its powerful application in heterogeneous operating environments, enabling enterprises to scale without fuss. Building on a solid range of diverse platform support,...
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...