|By Lori MacVittie
|July 1, 2010 07:37 AM EDT
One of the ways in which traditional architectures and deployment models is actually superior (yes, I said superior) to cloud computing is in provisioning. Before you label me a cloud heretic, let me explain. In traditional deployment models capacity is generally allocated based on anticipated peaks in demand. Because the time to acquire, deploy, and integrate hardware into the network and application infrastructure this process is planned for and well-understood, and the resources required are in place before they are needed. In cloud computing, the benefit is that the time required to acquire those resources is contracted to virtually nothing, making capacity planning much more difficult. The goal is just-in-time provisioning – resources are not provisioned until you are sure you’re going to need them because part of the value proposition of cloud and highly virtualized infrastructure is that you don’t pay for resources until you need them. But it’s very hard to provision just-in-time and sometimes the result will end up being almost-but-not-quite-in-time. Here’s a cute [whale | squirrel | furry animal] to look at until service is restored.
While fans of Twitter’s fail whale are loyal and everyone will likely agree its inception and subsequent use bought Twitter more than a bit of patience with its often times unreliable service, not everyone will be as lucky or have customers as understanding as Twitter. We’d all really rather prefer not to see the Fail Whale, regardless of how endearing he (she? it?) might be.
But we also don’t want to overprovision and potentially end up spending more money than we need to. So how can these two needs be balanced?
The first thing we need to do is know, in a given cloud, how long it will take to provision capacity and put it into the rotation. It would be nice if cloud providers offered a service devops could query to get the “current wait time” (a la customer service queues) but until then this timing will certainly need to be obtained by simply keeping track yourself.
The other “constant” (if there is such a thing in a elastic environment) is the capacity of the instances you are using. We’ll consider this a constant at this point because honestly, we’re not ready to move to the higher levels of enlightenment (and programmability) required to dynamically determine this value – though that will most certainly be the subject of a future, future post. Capacity needs to be in units measurable by the solution aggregating requests (a strategic point of control). This is almost certainly a Load balancer or application delivery controller of some kind, as these components are what enable elastic scalability and basically make cloud work. Typical units might be RPS (requests per second) but because of differences in the way different types of requests consume resources it may be easier and more consistent across applications to use connections, as in “concurrent open connections” as it is one of the limiting factors on capacity of application services.
The other two variables we need are only available at run-time, dynamically. You need to know the existing load – in the same units as capacity – and the current resource consumption rate. The resource consumption rate should be in the same units as capacity and in the same time unit as time to provision. If that’s minutes, use minutes. If that’s seconds, use seconds, and so on. It should be noted that the resource consumption rate is the harder of the two to obtain, requiring access to the historical performance statistics of the aggregating component (the load balancer).
But let’s assume you can and do have all these variables. How is that useful?
The formula is actually a fairly simple one once you’ve got the variables. You’re trying to figure out how much time you have before capacity is depleted (and hoping that the answer is smaller than the time to provision). Just-in-time provisioning, as the term implies, is an attempt to formulaically determine when to start the provisioning process such that capacity always meets demand without over-provisioning. Now, you’re always hedging your bets that a high resource consumption rate will continue in the next “time to provision”. It may be the case that the “spike” is over before the new instance is provisioned, but in this case you’re better safe than sorry, right? Unless your customers like seeing a [whale | squirrel | furry animal] and don’t mind the wait.
Consider the following example:
Total capacity right now is 1000 connections. The existing load is 800 connections. Connections are currently being consumed at a rate of 200 per minute. Provisioning more capacity takes 5 minutes. 1000 – 800 = 200 / 200 per minute = 1 minute of capacity left.
Provisioning should have begun at least 4 minutes ago, and optimally 9 minutes ago (too many years developing software for me – fudge factor included) to ensure capacity was available. In this situation, someone is getting a picture of a [whale | squirrel | furry animal].
The trick for devops is to tune the threshold at which the provisioning process begins. Too soon and you might be wasting resources (and money), too late and you end up with timeouts and angry users. Devops needs a way to programmatically evaluate the results and decide, based on the application (it may be more sensitive to failure than others) and the business significance of the transaction (purchase processes may need more warning than search or general browsing), when it is appropriate to start provisioning in such a way as to ensure availability without incurring a lot of cost overhead.
DYNAMIC INFRASTRUCTURE can ENABLE THIS TODAY
Now I’m sure this sounds like something out of science fiction, but it’s not. The variables can be obtained, if not easily, and the formula can easily be codified into scripts or management applications that enable this entire process to be automated. At a minimum, it should be possible for any skilled devop (developer or operations focused) to create a script/application/widget/gadget that gathers the data required and displays an alert when it’s time to provision – I suggest a nice HTML interface that encloses the entire page in BLINK tags, because nothing says FIX THIS NOW than BLINKING TEXT, right?
Regardless of how it’s actually to put to use, just-in-time provisioning is the goal of agile operations. How that happens is by leveraging cloud computing and highly virtualized data centers and combining that flexibility with the agility of a dynamic infrastructure. Remember, Infrastructure 2.0 isn’t just about configuration through automation. That’s nice, but it’s not the whole enchilada. It’s also about dynamism and flexibility at run-time, in providing actionable data and capabilities that allow elastic scalability to be truly elastic.
Read the original blog entry...
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location.
With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
Jul. 27, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,574
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, demonstrated how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and shared the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the develo...
Jul. 27, 2016 02:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,422
Basho Technologies has announced the latest release of Basho Riak TS, version 1.3. Riak TS is an enterprise-grade NoSQL database optimized for Internet of Things (IoT). The open source version enables developers to download the software for free and use it in production as well as make contributions to the code and develop applications around Riak TS. Enhancements to Riak TS make it quick, easy and cost-effective to spin up an instance to test new ideas and build IoT applications. In addition to...
Jul. 27, 2016 12:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,940
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
Jul. 26, 2016 11:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,579
IoT is rapidly changing the way enterprises are using data to improve business decision-making. In order to derive business value, organizations must unlock insights from the data gathered and then act on these.
In their session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, and Peter Shashkin, Head of Development Department at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how one organization leveraged IoT, cloud technology and data analysis to improve customer experiences and effi...
Jul. 26, 2016 11:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,006
"We've discovered that after shows 80% if leads that people get, 80% of the conversations end up on the show floor, meaning people forget about it, people forget who they talk to, people forget that there are actual business opportunities to be had here so we try to help out and keep the conversations going," explained Jeff Mesnik, Founder and President of ContentMX, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jul. 26, 2016 10:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,363
With 15% of enterprises adopting a hybrid IT strategy, you need to set a plan to integrate hybrid cloud throughout your infrastructure.
In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Steven Dreher, Director of Solutions Architecture at Green House Data, discussed how to plan for shifting resource requirements, overcome challenges, and implement hybrid IT alongside your existing data center assets. Highlights included anticipating workload, cost and resource calculations, integrating services on both sides...
Jul. 26, 2016 09:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,042
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, discussed how leveraging the Industrial Internet a...
Jul. 26, 2016 08:00 PM EDT Reads: 343
Big Data engines are powering a lot of service businesses right now. Data is collected from users from wearable technologies, web behaviors, purchase behavior as well as several arbitrary data points we’d never think of. The demand for faster and bigger engines to crunch and serve up the data to services is growing exponentially. You see a LOT of correlation between “Cloud” and “Big Data” but on Big Data and “Hybrid,” where hybrid hosting is the sanest approach to the Big Data Infrastructure pro...
Jul. 26, 2016 07:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,934
"My role is working with customers, helping them go through this digital transformation. I spend a lot of time talking to banks, big industries, manufacturers working through how they are integrating and transforming their IT platforms and moving them forward," explained William Morrish, General Manager Product Sales at Interoute, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jul. 26, 2016 06:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,132
A critical component of any IoT project is what to do with all the data being generated. This data needs to be captured, processed, structured, and stored in a way to facilitate different kinds of queries. Traditional data warehouse and analytical systems are mature technologies that can be used to handle certain kinds of queries, but they are not always well suited to many problems, particularly when there is a need for real-time insights.
Jul. 26, 2016 05:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,829
The best-practices for building IoT applications with Go Code that attendees can use to build their own IoT applications.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Indraneel Mitra, Senior Solutions Architect & Technology Evangelist at Cognizant, provided valuable information and resources for both novice and experienced developers on how to get started with IoT and Golang in a day.
He also provided information on how to use Intel Arduino Kit, Go Robotics API and AWS IoT stack to build an application tha...
Jul. 26, 2016 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,092
IoT generates lots of temporal data. But how do you unlock its value? You need to discover patterns that are repeatable in vast quantities of data, understand their meaning, and implement scalable monitoring across multiple data streams in order to monetize the discoveries and insights. Motif discovery and deep learning platforms are emerging to visualize sensor data, to search for patterns and to build application that can monitor real time streams efficiently.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, ...
Jul. 26, 2016 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,024
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
Jul. 26, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,047
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases.
In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
Jul. 26, 2016 03:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,723
WebRTC is bringing significant change to the communications landscape that will bridge the worlds of web and telephony, making the Internet the new standard for communications. Cloud9 took the road less traveled and used WebRTC to create a downloadable enterprise-grade communications platform that is changing the communication dynamic in the financial sector.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Leo Papadopoulos, CTO of Cloud9, discussed the importance of WebRTC and how it enables companies to focus...
Jul. 26, 2016 03:15 PM EDT Reads: 938
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office.
Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
Jul. 26, 2016 03:15 PM EDT Reads: 389
Verizon Communications Inc. (NYSE, Nasdaq: VZ) and Yahoo! Inc. (Nasdaq: YHOO) have entered into a definitive agreement under which Verizon will acquire Yahoo's operating business for approximately $4.83 billion in cash, subject to customary closing adjustments.
Yahoo informs, connects and entertains a global audience of more than 1 billion monthly active users** -- including 600 million monthly active mobile users*** through its search, communications and digital content products. Yahoo also co...
Jul. 26, 2016 02:30 PM EDT Reads: 570
"There's a growing demand from users for things to be faster. When you think about all the transactions or interactions users will have with your product and everything that is between those transactions and interactions - what drives us at Catchpoint Systems is the idea to measure that and to analyze it," explained Leo Vasiliou, Director of Web Performance Engineering at Catchpoint Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York Ci...
Jul. 26, 2016 01:45 PM EDT Reads: 2,004
SYS-CON Events announced today that LeaseWeb USA, a cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) provider, will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. LeaseWeb is one of the world's largest hosting brands. The company helps customers define, develop and deploy IT infrastructure tailored to their exact business needs, by combining various kinds cloud solutions.
Jul. 26, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,200