|By Linfeng Yu||
|December 30, 2005 06:00 PM EST||
Running applications in WAS for z/OS lets you take advantage of the z/OS built-in Quality of Service features such as reliability, availability, scalability, and serviceability. However, the solution could be very expensive.
J2EE applications and WAS for z/OS are very CPU-intensive workloads on z/OS. They consume a lot more CPU cycles than the traditional workloads running on z/OS, especially when processing big XML files.
Normally the CPU utilization of an application running on z/OS is measured in MIPS. An application consuming more CPU cycles means that the MIPS number for the application is higher. To provide more MIPS to run your application, more CPUs are needed. However, adding more CPUs to a zSeries server causes virtually all software license fees to go up because of the zSeries's software license model, which by the machine's CPU horsepower.
This is not a new story. Companies have been using different ways to manage the software cost on the zSeries platform for years. When the J2EE applications start running in WAS for z/OS, it's harder to manage the software cost than before.
To reduce the overall cost of enabling Java on zSeries platform, IBM introduced zAAP for Java workloads on z/OS. The following sections describe what a zAAP is, how it works, and how to use it.
What Is zAAP?
zAAP stands for zSeries Application Assist Processor, also known as the Integrated Facility for Application processor (IFA). It's a specialized processing unit (PU a k a CPU on open systems) available on the zSeries 990 (z990), 890 (z890), and z9. It provides a strategic z/OS Java execution environment for customers who want the powerful integration advantages and traditional QoS of the zSeries platform.
Conceptually, zAAP is just a co-processor like your old PC's floating-point co-processor. Instead of working as a standalone general processing unit (CP), it only assists the general-purpose CPs to execute Java programming under the control of the IBM JVM. For this reason, zAAP's capacity doesn't incur IBM or third-party software charges. So you can buy additional processing power exclusively for Java application execution without affecting the machine model designation that's used to determine zSeries software cost.
zAAP has been designed to operate asynchronously with general CPs to execute Java programming under control of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Executing IBM JVM processing cycles on a zAAP is a function of the IBM Software Developer Kit (SDK) for z/OS Technology Edition V1.4, z/OS V1R6, and the Processor Resource/System Manager (PR/SM).
Figure 1 is a z/OS Logical Partition with zAAP. One zAAP can be configured per general processor in a Central Electronic Complex (CEC).
zAAP is enabled by IBM's innovative zSeries PR/SM virtualization technology. It can be virtualized into logical zAAPs and assigned to different LPARs. But zAAPs and general CPs should exist in the same z/OS LPAR. On z990s or z890s, zAAPs are grouped in the ICF/IFL/zAAP processor pool. The ICF/IFL/zAAP processor pool appears on the hardware console as ICF processors. The number of ICFs shown is the sum of IFL, ICF, and zAAP processors characterized on the server.
To exploit a zAAP, the operating system must be migrated to the following levels of software:
- z/OS V1R6
- IBM JDK V1.4 with a PTF for APAR PQ 86689
- For WAS for z/OS Java workloads, WAS for z/OS version 5.1 above
The z/OS exploitation of zAAP capabilities provides the following added values:
- Simplifies and reduces server infrastructures by integrating e-business Java Web applications next to mission-critical data for QoS.
- Maximizes the value of zSeries investment through increased system productivity, achieved by reducing the demands and capacity requirements on general CPs, which can be reallocated to other workloads.
- With WAS for z/OS, your application can exploit the z/OS Workload Manager (WLM), which can guarantee service levels for specific kinds of customers and workloads defined by business needs.
How Does zAAP Work?
When a z/OS logical partition is configured, both CPs and zAAPs are necessary to support the planned Java and non-Java workloads. Normally a Web application running in WAS for z/OS consists of both Java and non-Java workloads.
Figure 2 is the zAAP workflow. It essentially explains how the zAAP works. The IBM JDK V1.4 JVM, parts of Language Environment (LE) runtime, and z/OS Supervisor are needed to support JVM execution on zAAP.
Some of the JVM tasks are dispatched to general CPs. Basically these tasks do the following:
- Determine if the program code is eligible to run on zAAP
- Signal the z/OS dispatcher of the zAAP work
- Handle the program code that's ineligible to run on zAAP
- Determine if the program code is eligible to run on zAAP
- Run the zAAP eligible program code
- Signal z/OS dispatcher of non-zAAP work
A zAAP-eligible unit of work can be executed on a zAAP. zAAP work inherits the dispatching priority from the execution on the general CP. When the JVM finishes Java code processing, it signals the dispatcher that the current unit of work is not zAAP-eligible any more. The unit of work release control puts it back in the general logical processor work queue.
If the application is a pure Java application, the entire application should be run on the zAAP. Unfortunately, most applications that run in WAS for z/OS use various native libraries implicitly. For example, the JDBC type II driver, MQ batch adapter, and CTG for CICS Access are all Java code wrapprd around native codes. WAS for z/OS itself has other native code to exploit the z/OS environment. So you might see the dispatcher switch the work back and forth between the zAAP and the general CP. You can see in Figure 3 the zAAP integration at work. Switching the works back and forth causes overhead. Using zAAP reduces the MIPS number on general CPs, but the total MIPS number is higher than before.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tony Shan, Chief Architect at CTS, will explore the synergy of Big Data and IoT. First he will take a closer look at the Internet of Things and Big Data individually, in terms of what, which, why, where, when, who, how and how much. Then he will explore the relationship between IoT and Big Data. Specifically, he will drill down to how the 4Vs aspects intersect with IoT: Volume, Variety, Velocity and Value. In turn, Tony will analyze how the key components of IoT influence Big Data: Device, Connectivity, Context, and Intelligence. He will dive deep to the matrix...
Oct. 5, 2015 09:00 PM EDT Reads: 205
When it comes to IoT in the enterprise, namely the commercial building and hospitality markets, a benefit not getting the attention it deserves is energy efficiency, and IoT’s direct impact on a cleaner, greener environment when installed in smart buildings. Until now clean technology was offered piecemeal and led with point solutions that require significant systems integration to orchestrate and deploy. There didn't exist a 'top down' approach that can manage and monitor the way a Smart Building actually breathes - immediately flagging overheating in a closet or over cooling in unoccupied ho...
Oct. 5, 2015 07:45 PM EDT Reads: 169
The enterprise is being consumerized, and the consumer is being enterprised. Moore's Law does not matter anymore, the future belongs to business virtualization powered by invisible service architecture, powered by hyperscale and hyperconvergence, and facilitated by vertical streaming and horizontal scaling and consolidation. Both buyers and sellers want instant results, and from paperwork to paperless to mindless is the ultimate goal for any seamless transaction. The sweetest sweet spot in innovation is automation. The most painful pain point for any business is the mismatch between supplies a...
Oct. 5, 2015 03:30 PM EDT Reads: 111
Mobile messaging has been a popular communication channel for more than 20 years. Finnish engineer Matti Makkonen invented the idea for SMS (Short Message Service) in 1984, making his vision a reality on December 3, 1992 by sending the first message ("Happy Christmas") from a PC to a cell phone. Since then, the technology has evolved immensely, from both a technology standpoint, and in our everyday uses for it. Originally used for person-to-person (P2P) communication, i.e., Sally sends a text message to Betty – mobile messaging now offers tremendous value to businesses for customer and empl...
Oct. 5, 2015 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 157
SYS-CON Events announced today that ProfitBricks, the provider of painless cloud infrastructure, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ProfitBricks is the IaaS provider that offers a painless cloud experience for all IT users, with no learning curve. ProfitBricks boasts flexible cloud servers and networking, an integrated Data Center Designer tool for visual control over the cloud and the best price/performance value available. ProfitBricks was named one of the coolest Clo...
Oct. 5, 2015 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 718
“The Internet of Things transforms the way organizations leverage machine data and gain insights from it,” noted Splunk’s CTO Snehal Antani, as Splunk announced accelerated momentum in Industrial Data and the IoT. The trend is driven by Splunk’s continued investment in its products and partner ecosystem as well as the creativity of customers and the flexibility to deploy Splunk IoT solutions as software, cloud services or in a hybrid environment. Customers are using Splunk® solutions to collect and correlate data from control systems, sensors, mobile devices and IT systems for a variety of Ind...
Oct. 5, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 569
Organizations already struggle with the simple collection of data resulting from the proliferation of IoT, lacking the right infrastructure to manage it. They can't only rely on the cloud to collect and utilize this data because many applications still require dedicated infrastructure for security, redundancy, performance, etc. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Emil Sayegh, CEO of Codero Hosting, will discuss how in order to resolve the inherent issues, companies need to combine dedicated and cloud solutions through hybrid hosting – a sustainable solution for the data required to manage I...
Oct. 5, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 415
You have your devices and your data, but what about the rest of your Internet of Things story? Two popular classes of technologies that nicely handle the Big Data analytics for Internet of Things are Apache Hadoop and NoSQL. Hadoop is designed for parallelizing analytical work across many servers and is ideal for the massive data volumes you create with IoT devices. NoSQL databases such as Apache HBase are ideal for storing and retrieving IoT data as “time series data.”
Oct. 5, 2015 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 444
Clearly the way forward is to move to cloud be it bare metal, VMs or containers. One aspect of the current public clouds that is slowing this cloud migration is cloud lock-in. Every cloud vendor is trying to make it very difficult to move out once a customer has chosen their cloud. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Naveen Nimmu, CEO of Clouber, Inc., will advocate that making the inter-cloud migration as simple as changing airlines would help the entire industry to quickly adopt the cloud without worrying about any lock-in fears. In fact by having standard APIs for IaaS would help PaaS expl...
Oct. 5, 2015 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 429
As more and more data is generated from a variety of connected devices, the need to get insights from this data and predict future behavior and trends is increasingly essential for businesses. Real-time stream processing is needed in a variety of different industries such as Manufacturing, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Finance, Online Retail, Smart Grids, and Healthcare. Azure Stream Analytics is a fully managed distributed stream computation service that provides low latency, scalable processing of streaming data in the cloud with an enterprise grade SLA. It features built-in integration with Azur...
Oct. 5, 2015 10:00 AM EDT Reads: 726
Apps and devices shouldn't stop working when there's limited or no network connectivity. Learn how to bring data stored in a cloud database to the edge of the network (and back again) whenever an Internet connection is available. In his session at 17th Cloud Expo, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate at IBM Cloud Data Services, will demonstrate techniques for replicating cloud databases with devices in order to build offline-first mobile or Internet of Things (IoT) apps that can provide a better, faster user experience, both offline and online. The focus of this talk will be on IBM Cloudant, Apa...
Oct. 5, 2015 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 433
SYS-CON Events announced today that HPM Networks will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For 20 years, HPM Networks has been integrating technology solutions that solve complex business challenges. HPM Networks has designed solutions for both SMB and enterprise customers throughout the San Francisco Bay Area.
Oct. 5, 2015 09:00 AM EDT Reads: 562
As enterprises capture more and more data of all types – structured, semi-structured, and unstructured – data discovery requirements for business intelligence (BI), Big Data, and predictive analytics initiatives grow more complex. A company’s ability to become data-driven and compete on analytics depends on the speed with which it can provision their analytics applications with all relevant information. The task of finding data has traditionally resided with IT, but now organizations increasingly turn towards data source discovery tools to find the right data, in context, for business users, d...
Oct. 5, 2015 08:00 AM EDT Reads: 375
SYS-CON Events announced today that MobiDev, a software development company, will exhibit at the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MobiDev is a software development company with representative offices in Atlanta (US), Sheffield (UK) and Würzburg (Germany); and development centers in Ukraine. Since 2009 it has grown from a small group of passionate engineers and business managers to a full-scale mobile software company with over 150 developers, designers, quality assurance engineers, project manage...
Oct. 5, 2015 05:00 AM EDT Reads: 721
The broad selection of hardware, the rapid evolution of operating systems and the time-to-market for mobile apps has been so rapid that new challenges for developers and engineers arise every day. Security, testing, hosting, and other metrics have to be considered through the process. In his session at Big Data Expo, Walter Maguire, Chief Field Technologist, HP Big Data Group, at Hewlett-Packard, will discuss the challenges faced by developers and a composite Big Data applications builder, focusing on how to help solve the problems that developers are continuously battling.
Oct. 5, 2015 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 400
SYS-CON Events announced today that IBM Cloud Data Services has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. IBM Cloud Data Services offers a portfolio of integrated, best-of-breed cloud data services for developers focused on mobile computing and analytics use cases.
Oct. 4, 2015 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 559
Learn how IoT, cloud, social networks and last but not least, humans, can be integrated into a seamless integration of cooperative organisms both cybernetic and biological. This has been enabled by recent advances in IoT device capabilities, messaging frameworks, presence and collaboration services, where devices can share information and make independent and human assisted decisions based upon social status from other entities. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Heydt, founder of Seamless Thingies, will discuss and demonstrate how devices and humans can be integrated from a simple clust...
Oct. 4, 2015 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 620
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloud Raxak has been named “Media & Session Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 17th Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Raxak Protect automates security compliance across private and public clouds. Using the SaaS tool or managed service, developers can deploy cloud apps quickly, cost-effectively, and without error.
Oct. 3, 2015 01:15 PM EDT Reads: 580
Who are you? How do you introduce yourself? Do you use a name, or do you greet a friend by the last four digits of his social security number? Assuming you don’t, why are we content to associate our identity with 10 random digits assigned by our phone company? Identity is an issue that affects everyone, but as individuals we don’t spend a lot of time thinking about it. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ben Klang, Founder & President of Mojo Lingo, will discuss the impact of technology on identity. Should we federate, or not? How should identity be secured? Who owns the identity? How is identity ...
Oct. 3, 2015 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 414
SYS-CON Events announced today that Solgeniakhela will exhibit at SYS-CON's 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Solgeniakhela is the global market leader in Cloud Collaboration and Cloud Infrastructure software solutions. Designed to “Bridge the Gap” between Personal and Professional Social, Mobile and Cloud user experiences, our solutions help large and medium-sized organizations dramatically improve productivity, reduce collaboration costs, and increase the overall enterprise value by bringing ...
Oct. 2, 2015 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 548