Click here to close now.

Welcome!

Websphere Authors: Ruxit Blog, Carmen Gonzalez, VictorOps Blog, Lori MacVittie, Jayaram Krishnaswamy

Related Topics: Websphere

Websphere: Article

The Six Principles of Systems Engineering

IBM's Rational Rules Developed Over 10-Year Period

IBM Rational's six principles of systems engineering are a set of high-level systems development guidelines derived from the careful analysis of successful, complex systems development engagements over the past ten years.

Although they are neither comprehensive nor mutually exclusive, they serve to highlight key areas of focus for organizations interested in quickly building expertise in complex systems development. They also serve as a "measuring stick" for assessing potential problem areas and the root causes underlying symptomatic project deficiencies or failures. It is well-known and accepted that function, schedule, and cost are three key and mutually dependent aspects of project management -- make a change to one, and the effects often ripple through the other two.

A similar relationship exists in product and program management for complex systems development. As shown in Figure 1, the three key aspects are:

  1. Systems architecture
  2. Organizational structure, including the systems development infrastructure
  3. Process, including workflows, best practices, and the like
These aspects collaborate to help achieve the following:

  • "Build the right system and build the system right"

    Architecture focuses on building the right system and model-driven use-case based architectural decomposition lays the foundation for building the system right. Why is architecture singled out? Because it provides the foundation on which the system is ultimately constructed. The choices made in selecting the system's architecture become a lasting legacy - either good or bad.

    Here's a transportation example: The basic architecture used for centuries in building roads or other transportation elements (like rail tracks) was basically point-to-point (the shortest distance between two points can be considered optimal since it minimizes the road length and one would assume maximizes time to travel efficiency). Simple enough, but there was always at least a physical constraint: the terrain, which forced the path to avoid obstacles. There were also other potential constraints such as "hostile" territory or political boundaries.

    In any case, roads were built and paths crossed somewhat haphazardly. Move forward to the 20th century. Population growth generated additional constraints - namely street lights or traffic signs to optimize the flow of traffic through intersections. These are somewhat problematic on roads architected in the point-to-point avoid obstacle approach, especially where more than two roads intersect. A clearly "better" architecture has proven to be laying out roads in rectangular grids. This architecture and the many implementations are much easier to control from a signaling and traffic flow perspective.

    So build the right system and build it right - making it robust (scalable, extendible, easy to maintain, easy to use, and so on).

  • "Do the right things, and do the things right"

    The systems development framework focuses on defining the right things to do throughout the product lifecycle to optimize business value and return on investment and best practices, processes/supporting tools and governance (requirements, quality, change, configuration, and program/project management) focus on ensuring things are done right.

  • "Apply the right resources, and apply the resources right"

    "Doing" and "building" are action verbs; they require resources to perform the "doing" and the "building". The most significant enterprise resource is people, followed by supporting infrastructure. Acquiring, motivating, and retaining skilled personnel applies the right resources, and aligning the organization appropriately to optimize communication, collaboration, and effort applies the resources optimally. A sound enterprise infrastructure (including IT equipment and software) is one key aspect in ensuring the resources are applied optimally, once again maximizing business value and return on investment

    The six principles of systems engineering address all three aspects described above. The three technical principles (noted below) focus on architecture and the derivation of system models, while the remaining principles provide the complementary infrastructures and workflows needed to optimize the technical development environment.

    The six systems engineering development principles are:

    1. Decompose systems, not requirements (technical).
    2. Enable both separation and integration of "key systems development" concerns (technical).
    3. Specifications flow up and down the architecture (technical).
    4. Systems and components collaborate; so should development teams.
    5. Development organizations should reflect product architectures.
    6. Base the "development" lifecycle on removing risk and adding value.
    Let's examine each of these principles, initially from a generic systems engineering view, and then specifically in the context of joint hardware/software development.

    Decompose systems, not requirements
    Since systems and software engineering principles and methods have been written about, discussed, and applied in countless cases, one might think that development teams have a common understanding of such terms as "system" and "systems engineering." Unfortunately, this is not the case; neither across enterprises within a specific industry nor across the product and functional domains within an engineering development community in a single enterprise.

    According to INCOSE (the International Council on Systems Engineering), systems engineering is2:
    An interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. It focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements, and then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem:

    • Operations
    • Performance
    • Test
    • Manufacturing
    • Cost and Schedule
    • Training and Support
    • Disposal
    A system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole, which provides a set of services that are used by an enterprise to carry out a business purpose (mission). System components consist of hardware, software, data, and workers3. Put simply, a system is a complex entity that provides some tangible result of value. Systems engineering is a disciplined approach that helps us examine desired results and determine what can satisfy them. It also helps us determine how to do this within a set of business-critical constraints (cost, schedule, testing parameters, ease of manufacturing, and so on). The "what" is the system, the "how" is the functional requirements, the "business-critical constraints" are the supplementary requirements, and the "desired results" are products of use cases.
  • More Stories By Murray Cantor

    Murray Cantor is a member of the IBM Rational CTO team, taking the lead for Governance and Systems. Cantor formerly lead the IBM Rational field services group, promoting and extending Rational best practices, and working closely with customers on innovative ways to build and deliver systems more efficiently.

    More Stories By Gene Roose

    Gene Roose is a senior systems engineering consultant for IBM Rational, concentrating on model-driven systems development methods. He assists clients with solution analysis and design, architectural derivation and validation, and overall project management.

    Comments (0)

    Share your thoughts on this story.

    Add your comment
    You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

    In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


    @ThingsExpo Stories
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Creative Business Solutions will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Creative Business Solutions is the top stocking authorized HP Renew Distributor in the U.S. Based out of Long Island, NY, Creative Business Solutions offers a one-stop shop for a diverse range of products including Proliant, Blade and Industry Standard Servers, Networking, Server Options and Care Packs. As a trusted supplier, CBS guarantees quality controlled stock levels thanks to an Auto...
    SOA Software has changed its name to Akana. With roots in Web Services and SOA Governance, Akana has established itself as a leader in API Management and is expanding into cloud integration as an alternative to the traditional heavyweight enterprise service bus (ESB). The company recently announced that it achieved more than 90% year-over-year growth. As Akana, the company now addresses the evolution and diversification of SOA, unifying security, management, and DevOps across SOA, APIs, microservices, and more.
    There are lots of challenges in IoT around secure, scalable and business friendly infrastructure for enterprises. For large corporations, IoT implementations are one of the top priorities of the decade. All industries are seeing a competitive need to sustain by investing in IoT initiatives. The value addition comes from improved customer service, innovative product and additional revenue streams. The data from these IP-connected devices can be leveraged for a variety of business applications as well as responsive action controls. The various architectural building blocks of an IoT ...
    GENBAND introduced its Real Time Communications (RTC) Client for Lync* to seamlessly combine real-time communications with Lync Instant Messaging (IM) and Presence. “We’re shaking up the economics of delivering Unified Communications (UC) and offering a compelling way to integrate previously bespoke communications technologies,” said Carl Baptiste, GENBAND’s Senior Vice President, Enterprise Solutions. “We’re offering enterprises the best of both worlds by combining our own high availability voice, video and collaboration with Lync’s IM and Presence; creating a single, web centric, client. O...
    The list of ‘new paradigm’ technologies that now surrounds us appears to be at an all time high. From cloud computing and Big Data analytics to Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) and the Internet of Things (IoT), today we have to deal with what the industry likes to call ‘paradigm shifts’ at every level of IT. This is disruption; of course, we understand that – change is almost always disruptive.
    After making a doctor’s appointment via your mobile device, you receive a calendar invite. The day of your appointment, you get a reminder with the doctor’s location and contact information. As you enter the doctor’s exam room, the medical team is equipped with the latest tablet containing your medical history – he or she makes real time updates to your medical file. At the end of your visit, you receive an electronic prescription to your preferred pharmacy and can schedule your next appointment.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that kintone has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 3–5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. kintone promotes cloud-based workgroup productivity, transparency and profitability with a seamless collaboration space, build your own business application (BYOA) platform, and workflow automation system.
    Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. It also ensured scalability and better service for customers, including MUY! Companies, one of the country's largest franchise restaurant companies with 232 Pizza Hut locations. This is one example of WebRTC adoption today, but the potential is limitless when powered by IoT.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Optimal Design, an Internet of Things solution provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's Internet of @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Optimal Design is an award winning product development firm offering industrial design and engineering services to the consumer, medical, and defense markets.
    Chuck Piluso will present a study of cloud adoption trends and the power and flexibility of IBM Power and Pureflex cloud solutions. Speaker Bio: Prior to Data Storage Corporation (DSC), Mr. Piluso founded North American Telecommunication Corporation, a facilities-based Competitive Local Exchange Carrier licensed by the Public Service Commission in 10 states, serving as the company's chairman and president from 1997 to 2000. Between 1990 and 1997, Mr. Piluso served as chairman & founder of International Telecommunications Corporation, a facilities-based international carrier licensed by t...
    @ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential M2M Brand by Onalytica in the ‘Machine to Machine: Top 100 Influencers and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed the online debate on M2M by looking at over 85,000 tweets to provide the most influential individuals and brands that drive the discussion. According to Onalytica the "analysis showed a very engaged community with a lot of interactive tweets. The M2M discussion seems to be more fragmented and driven by some of the major brands present in the M2M space. This really allows some room for influential individuals to create more high value inter...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Cisco, the worldwide leader in IT that transforms how people connect, communicate and collaborate, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cisco makes amazing things happen by connecting the unconnected. Cisco has shaped the future of the Internet by becoming the worldwide leader in transforming how people connect, communicate and collaborate. Cisco and our partners are building the platform for the Internet of Everything by connecting the...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Liaison Technologies, a leading provider of data management and integration cloud services and solutions, has been named "Silver Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Liaison Technologies is a recognized market leader in providing cloud-enabled data integration and data management solutions to break down complex information barriers, enabling enterprises to make smarter decisions, faster.
    Participants will reach the final if their IoT solution is liked. A community vote will determine the best solutions submitted in each country, after which an expert jury will select the national winners and the best international IoT solution. Each country's best solution can win a national marketing campaign worth up to €30,000 and become a partner in Deutsche Telekom's participating markets. The winning international solution can become partner of Deutsche Telekom Group across all eight countries and reach out to a potential of 10,8 million business customers. Deutsche Telekom Group has a...
    Recent technology advances in miniaturization has positioned the wearables as the pinnacle of technology convergence with the human body. We inquire if wearables are mere standard miniaturized devices extended with the connectivity and present our views on considerations like design, applications, performance, efficiency, interoperability, usage scenarios, human device interaction and consequent trade-offs enabling wearables to impart optimal value.
    WebRTC Summit has announced today that Peter Dunkley has been named summit chair of WebRTC Summit 2015 New York. The 4th International WebRTC Summit will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in Manhattan, New York. @ThingsExpo anticipates 90% of WebRTC companies & developers will monetize their products & services through IoT by 2016. Peter Dunkley is Technical Director at Acision. He graduated from The University of Edinburgh in 2000 with a BSc (Hons) in Computer Science. After graduation Peter worked on a PSTN switch developing signalling stacks for SS7, ISDN and simi...
    In this session we look at creating interactive communications via the web by adding messaging, file transfer, and group communication (group chat and audio/video conferencing) into the web experience. We will also discuss potential applications of this technology in areas including B2B, B2C, P2P, and gaming. Peter is Technical Director at Acision. He graduated from The University of Edinburgh in 2000 with a BSc (Hons) in Computer Science. After graduation Peter worked on a PSTN switch developing signalling stacks for SS7, ISDN and similar protocols and creating advanced routing and serv...
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Windstream, a leading provider of advanced network and cloud communications, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. Windstream (Nasdaq: WIN), a FORTUNE 500 and S&P 500 company, is a leading provider of advanced network communications, including cloud computing and managed services, to businesses nationwide. The company also offers broadband, phone and digital TV services to consumers primarily in rural areas.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place June 9-11, 2015 at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 17th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place November 3–5, 2015 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SoftLayer operates a global cloud infrastructure platform built for Internet scale. With a global footprint of data centers and network points of presence, SoftLayer provides infrastructure as a service to leading-edge customers ranging from ...
    The WebRTC Summit 2015 New York, to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY, announces that its Call for Papers is open. Topics include all aspects of improving IT delivery by eliminating waste through automated business models leveraging cloud technologies. WebRTC Summit is co-located with 16th International Cloud Expo, @ThingsExpo, Big Data Expo, and DevOps Summit.