Welcome!

Websphere Authors: Trevor Parsons, Carmen Gonzalez, Roger Strukhoff, Ajay Budhraja, Mustafa Kapadia

News Feed Item

A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications

NEW YORK, Jan. 3, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications

http://www.reportlinker.com/p01078600/A-Magnetic-Moment-Prospects-for-MR...

Current charge-based semiconductor storage technologies such as SRAM, DRAM, NOR flash and NAND flash face scaling challenges as geometries shrink below 20nm. As a result, a marked increase in research activity focused on alternative memory technologies has occurred over the last decade.

Non-charge storage-based memories such as FeRAM and MRAM offer fast RAM-like performance along with non-volatility and extremely high endurance. Although in commercial production, both suffer from high costs vis-à-vis current technologies and have only been able to address niche applications.

All that is likely to change with the availability of samples of in-plane spin-torque transfer MRAM (STT-MRAM) from Avalanche Technology and Everspin Technologies. These achievements are a stepping stone to next generation perpendicular STT-MRAM which promises a scalable path with the potential to broaden its appeal into mainstream consumer applications. As a consequence, the embedded and standalone non-volatile RAM markets are on the cusp of explosive growth in the next few years.

A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications offers an independent view of the opportunities and challenges presented by MRAM technology and its potential as one of the leading contenders in the emerging memory space.

Table of Contents

ContentsList of FiguresList of TablesExecutive SummaryMemory OverviewIntroductionThe Memory HierarchySRAMConceptTechnology EvolutionDRAMConceptTechnology EvolutionNOR FlashConceptTechnology EvolutionNAND FlashConceptTechnology EvolutionFerroelectric MemoriesFerroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM)Ferroelectric Transistors (FeFET)Phase Change MemoryConceptBasic OperationOther Resistive Switching MemoriesMRAMIntroductionConventional DesignToggle MRAMConceptMaterials for the Toggle-MRAM:Thermal Assisted Switching TAS-MRAMConceptMaterials for the TAS-MRAMSpin-Transfer Torque (STT) MRAMConceptMaterials for the STTThermal Stability and RetentionWrite Margin vs. ReliabilityScalabilityMaterials with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy (PMA)Domain wall (DW) motion MRAMConceptMaterials for the DW-Motion MRAM CellIncreasing the Bit Density With Multi Level Cells (MLC)MLC Based on Single MTJsMLC Based on Parallel Connected MTJsMLC Based on Series Connected MTJsMLC Based on Domain Wall MotionMLC ProgrammingTwo-Step ProgrammingProbabilistic ProgrammingDesign and ArchitectureSTT-MRAM Cell Design1T-1MTJ2T-1MTJShared Source-Line (-Plane)Selection DeviceSensing SchemesData Retention RelaxationRacetrack MemoryMTJ in non-volatile logicIntroductionNon-volatile Latch/Flip-FlopNon-volatile AdderNon-volatile Look-up Table (LUT)Spin-logicMRAM FabricationProcess flowElement shape3D IntegrationMRAM Cost DriversProcess ComplexityCell EfficiencyYieldCost per BitMemory ComparisonMRAM CharacteristicsSwitching TimeCurrent / Power ConsumptionRetention TimeEndurance and Wear LevelingECCScalingMRAM vs. DRAMMRAM vs. FlashMRAM vs. SRAMMRAM vs. FeRAMMRAM vs. PCMRoadmapMRAM StatusAeroflex, Inc.Avalanche TechnologyCrocus TechnologyEverspin Technologies, Inc.Freescale SemiconductorHitachi Ltd.Honeywell International, Inc.IBM Corp.Infineon Technologies AGIntel Corp.Magsil CorporationMicromem Technologies, Inc.Micron TechnologyNEC Corp.NVE Corp.Qualcomm, Inc.Renesas TechnologySamsung ElectronicsSK Hynix SemiconductorSpin Transfer TechnologiesSpingate Technology LLCSPINTECST MicroelectronicsTaiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing CompanyToshiba Corp.Tower Semiconductor Ltd.Market and ApplicationsIntroductionEmbedded MRAM MarketRequirement For Successful eMRAM Market EntryProcessor Companion Devices with Battery-backed SRAM and Real-time ClockSet-top box MCU using EEPROM or Battery-Backed SRAMRF ID Devices, Smartcards, and e-PassportsSmart MetersMobile Baseband SOCsMobile Application Processor SoCsEmbedded nvRAM Market ForecastBB-SRAMFERAMnvSRAMMRAMMarket for nvRAM Product Revenue by TechnologyEmbedded MRAM Market and Applications OutlookStandalone MRAM MarketMemory Market Segmentation Based Upon Price/Bit and Feature Sets DifferentiationMRAM as an SRAM ReplacementMRAM as a Non-volatile RAMRAID Write Index ApplicationSmartMeter Datalog ApplicationOther nvRAM ApplicationsMRAM as a DRAM ReplacementHigh Density DRAM-compatible MRAM ApplicationsInstant-on Embedded Controller MemoryRAID Non-volatile Cache MemoryHDD Non-volatile Buffer MemoryEnterprise SSD Metadata Cache/BufferMobile Chipset MemoryMRAM as a Storage Class MemoryStandalone MRAM Market and Applications SummaryReferencesAbout the AuthorsAbout Forward InsightsServicesContactAbout NamLabContact

List of Figures

Figure 1. Memory HierarchyFigure 2. SRAM Cell SchematicFigure 3. Monolithic 3D SRAM TechnologyFigure 4. DRAM Cell SchematicFigure 5. DRAM Cell Transistor EvolutionFigure 6. DRAM Cell Capacitor TrendFigure 7. NOR Flash Cell (ETOX: EPROM thin oxide cell)Figure 8. NOR ArchitectureFigure 9. NOR Flash CellFigure 10. NOR Flash Technology EvolutionFigure 11. Drain Bias MarginFigure 12. Multi-bit Charge Trapping CellFigure 13. NAND ArchitectureFigure 14. NAND Cell StringFigure 15. NAND Flash Technology EvolutionFigure 16. NAND Flash Memory Gap Fill at 63nm and Flat Memory Cell at 20nmFigure 17. Electrons Stored on the Floating GateFigure 18. Operation of a FeRAM MemoryFigure 19. Ferroelectric Field Effect TransistorFigure 20. Basic PCM Cell Structure and Cell OperationFigure 21. Resistive Switching EffectsFigure 22. MRAM-Cell RequirementsFigure 23. Schematic View of (a) Field-Induced Switching MRAM and (b) STT MRAM.Figure 24. MRAM Operation with Field-Induced SwitchingFigure 25. Switching Field Threshold for Permalloy Magnetic Elements of Different Ends.Figure 26. Program Operation in the Toggle Switching Scheme MRAM DesignFigure 27. Toggle-MRAM Cell with a Select TransistorFigure 28. MTJ Layer Stack and the Uniformity RequirementsFigure 29. Writing Procedure for (a) a Conventional MRAM Cell and (b) TAS MRAM CellFigure 30. MTJ Design for a) Conventional Field Driven Approach and b) TAS ApproachFigure 31. Architecture of a TAS-MRAM Memory ArrayFigure 32. Influence of the Thickness of an IrMn Layer on the Exchange Bias FieldFigure 33. Area Dependency of the Write Power for a TAS-MRAM CellFigure 34. TAS-MRAM Cell Material Stack and Write Power Density vs. Junction AreaFigure 35. Material Stack for a Double Barrier MTJ with one Thermal BarrierFigure 36. Spin Torque Transfer MRAM ConceptFigure 37. Schematic View of a Typical STT Memory Element and TEM Cross-SectionFigure 38. Illustration of the Spin Polarization Enhancement for a Dual Barrier StructureFigure 39. Normalized Switching Current Thresholds vs. Magneto-Resistance RatioFigure 40. STT-MRAM Write Current Scaling for Different MTJ StructuresFigure 41. Required Room Temperature Values for ?HFigure 42. Calculated Single Bit Cycle to Cycle Read Error Rate for three ?I ValuesFigure 43. Measured Critical Switching Voltage and Break Down Voltage DistributionsFigure 44. Switching Probability vs. Switching Pulse WidthFigure 45. BER Curves Showing a Bifurcated Switching,Figure 46. Planar MTJ Scaling: Thickness and Switching Current Density vs. Cell WidthFigure 47. Comparison of (a) In-Plane STT-MRAM and (b) Perpendicular STT-MRAM.Figure 48. Illustration of Perpendicular STT-MRAM DesignFigure 49. Scaling of Critical Switching Current for In-Plane and Perpend. MTJ ElementsFigure 50. Possible Cell Structure and Operation Principle of the DW-Motion MRAM CellFigure 51. DW-Motion Cell Structure a) and Cross-Sectional TEM Image b)Figure 52. DW-Motion Velocity in a Co/Ni Nano-Laminate Free LayerFigure 53. MLC in Single MTJs - Calculated TMR RatioFigure 54. Schematic Illustration of MLC-MTJFigure 55. MLC STT-MRAM Cell with Series Connected MTJsFigure 56. Stacked MTJ Cell Fabrication and Bit Cost ScalingFigure 57. MLC with Field Compensation LayerFigure 58. Schematic Representation of MLC Cell Based on Domain Wall MotionFigure 59. State Transition Graphs of Write SchemesFigure 60. Probabilistic ProgrammingFigure 61. 1T-1MTJ STT-MRAM StructureFigure 62. 2T1MTJ Structure and LayoutFigure 63. Shared SourceLine: a) Schematic and b) LayoutFigure 64. MTJ Current Scaling Compared to the Current Scaling of Select DevicesFigure 65. Non-Destructive Self-Reference Sensing Scheme:Figure 66. Comparison of Different MTJ Designs at 350K:Figure 67. Magnetic Racetrack Memory – a 3D Shift RegisterFigure 68. The Circuit Diagram of Non-volatile Latch Fabricated by NECFigure 69. The Circuit Diagram of Non-volatile Latch Designed by STMicroelectonicsFigure 70. Non-volatile Adder Fabricated by Hitachi.Figure 71. Non-volatile Lookup-Table Fabricated by HitcathiFigure 72. Schematic of Programmable Spin-LogicFigure 73. MRAM Sputtering Cluster ToolsFigure 74. Schematic Cross Sectional View of an MRAM Module in the Back End Of LineFigure 75. SEM Cross Section of CMOS Chip with Back End Of Line MTJ MRAMFigure 76. Top view of MTJ, TEM Cross-Section and Key Process Flow of STT-MRAMFigure 77. Cross Section of 4Mb MRAM Product and Top-View of the Tunnel JunctionFigure 78. Trade-Off Between Operating Time and Writing Current of the STT-MTJFigure 79. Operation of the Proposed Lookback SchemeFigure 80. Block Diagram of a Cache With Lookback SchemeFigure 81. Minimum ? (Thermal Stability) Required to Get a 10 Year MTTF.Figure 82. The Dual-ECC Memory Architecture with Intrinsic and Extrinsic ECCs.Figure 83. Cell Size TrendFigure 84. Memory Density TrendFigure 85. MRAM Papers Presented at VLSI Symposium and IEDMFigure 86. Everspin 64Mb ST-MRAM Die PhotoFigure 87. 54nm STT-MRAMFigure 88. OST-MRAM vs. Conventional MRAMFigure 89. Spingate's Roadmap and Target MarketFigure 90. Re-write Current Density and MR RatioFigure 91. 30-Nanometer Diameter MTJFigure 92. Crocus-TowerJazz TAS- MRAMFigure 93. Device CharacteristicsFigure 94. eFlash and NOR Flash Memory MarketFigure 95. MRAM as Converged Embedded MemoryFigure 96. Toggle Mode MRAM Uses Higher Write Power to Generate Magnetic FieldsFigure 97. Spin Torque MRAM Directly Switches MTJ Using Current Through CellFigure 98. Cubic Corporation GoCard used eFERAM RF ID ChipFigure 99. Processor with Hybrid Cache MemoryFigure 100. Market for Embedded nvRAM Products by TechnologyFigure 101. Embedded MRAM Value by Application SegmentFigure 102. Standalone Memory MarketFigure 103. Memory Price per MB TrendsFigure 104. Volatile Memory PyramidFigure 105. Non-volatile Memory PyramidFigure 106. SRAM MarketFigure 107. Battery-Backed SRAM and nvSRAMFigure 108. RAID Disk Controller Showing RAID Write Journal and Cache MemoriesFigure 109. Comparison of HDD Recording MethodsFigure 110. Buffalo's SSD with MRAM cacheFigure 111. Concept of Storage Class MemoryFigure 113. Price per Megabyte Trend of Conventional and Emerging Memory TechnologiesFigure 114. nvRAM Market ForecastFigure 115. Standalone MRAM Market by Application Segment

List of Tables

Table 1. Comparison of In-Plane and Perpendicular MTJTable 2. Comparison of Conventional CMOS Adder and the Non-volatile AdderTable 3. Estimated Process Complexity for a STT-MRAM ManufacturingTable 4. Relative Cost Estimation for STT-MRAM Compared to DRAM and NAND FlashTable 5. Memory ComparisonTable 6. Embedded Memory RoadmapTable 7. Standalone Memory RoadmapTable 8. Spingate's ps-MRAM vs. Other Memory TechnologiesTable 9. Key Parameters for eNVM ApplicationsTable 10. Market for Embedded nvRAM Products by TechnologyTable 11. Embedded MRAM Technology and Applications RoadmapTable 12. Embedded MRAM Revenue and Units by ApplicationTable 13. Standalone MRAM Technology, Density and Applications RoadmapTable 14. Price per Megabyte Trend of Conventional and Emerging Memory TechnologiesTable 15. Detailed MRAM Forecast (Revenue & Units)

To order this report:Electronic_Component_and_Semiconductor Industry: A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications

Nicolas Bombourg

Reportlinker

Email: nicolasbombourg@reportlinker.com

US: (805)652-2626

Intl: +1 805-652-2626

SOURCE Reportlinker

More Stories By PR Newswire

Copyright © 2007 PR Newswire. All rights reserved. Republication or redistribution of PRNewswire content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of PRNewswire. PRNewswire shall not be liable for any errors or delays in the content, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon.

@ThingsExpo Stories
Samsung VP Jacopo Lenzi, who headed the company's recent SmartThings acquisition under the auspices of Samsung's Open Innovaction Center (OIC), answered a few questions we had about the deal. This interview was in conjunction with our interview with SmartThings CEO Alex Hawkinson. IoT Journal: SmartThings was developed in an open, standards-agnostic platform, and will now be part of Samsung's Open Innovation Center. Can you elaborate on your commitment to keep the platform open? Jacopo Lenzi: Samsung recognizes that true, accelerated innovation cannot be driven from one source, but requires a...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Red Hat, the world's leading provider of open source solutions, will exhibit at Internet of @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Red Hat is the world's leading provider of open source software solutions, using a community-powered approach to reliable and high-performing cloud, Linux, middleware, storage and virtualization technologies. Red Hat also offers award-winning support, training, and consulting services. As the connective hub in a global network of enterprises, partners, a...
P2P RTC will impact the landscape of communications, shifting from traditional telephony style communications models to OTT (Over-The-Top) cloud assisted & PaaS (Platform as a Service) communication services. The P2P shift will impact many areas of our lives, from mobile communication, human interactive web services, RTC and telephony infrastructure, user federation, security and privacy implications, business costs, and scalability. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Robin Raymond, Chief Architect at Hookflash Inc., will walk through the shifting landscape of traditional telephone a...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Matrix.org has been named “Silver Sponsor” of Internet of @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Matrix is an ambitious new open standard for open, distributed, real-time communication over IP. It defines a new approach for interoperable Instant Messaging and VoIP based on pragmatic HTTP APIs and WebRTC, and provides open source reference implementations to showcase and bootstrap the new standard. Our focus is on simplicity, security, and supporting the fullest feature set.
BSQUARE is a global leader of embedded software solutions. We enable smart connected systems at the device level and beyond that millions use every day and provide actionable data solutions for the growing Internet of Things (IoT) market. We empower our world-class customers with our products, services and solutions to achieve innovation and success. For more information, visit www.bsquare.com.
How do APIs and IoT relate? The answer is not as simple as merely adding an API on top of a dumb device, but rather about understanding the architectural patterns for implementing an IoT fabric. There are typically two or three trends: Exposing the device to a management framework Exposing that management framework to a business centric logic • Exposing that business layer and data to end users. This last trend is the IoT stack, which involves a new shift in the separation of what stuff happens, where data lives and where the interface lies. For instance, it’s a mix of architectural style...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SOA Software, an API management leader, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. SOA Software is a leading provider of API Management and SOA Governance products that equip business to deliver APIs and SOA together to drive their company to meet its business strategy quickly and effectively. SOA Software’s technology helps businesses to accelerate their digital channels with APIs, drive partner adoption, monetize their assets, and achieve a...
From a software development perspective IoT is about programming "things," about connecting them with each other or integrating them with existing applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Yakov Fain, co-founder of Farata Systems and SuranceBay, will show you how small IoT-enabled devices from multiple manufacturers can be integrated into the workflow of an enterprise application. This is a practical demo of building a framework and components in HTML/Java/Mobile technologies to serve as a platform that can integrate new devices as they become available on the market.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Utimaco will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Utimaco is a leading manufacturer of hardware based security solutions that provide the root of trust to keep cryptographic keys safe, secure critical digital infrastructures and protect high value data assets. Only Utimaco delivers a general-purpose hardware security module (HSM) as a customizable platform to easily integrate into existing software solutions, embed business logic and build s...
Connected devices are changing the way we go about our everyday life, from wearables to driverless cars, to smart grids and entire industries revolutionizing business opportunities through smart objects, capable of two-way communication. But what happens when objects are given an IP-address, and we rely on that connection, sometimes with our lives? How do we secure those vast data infrastructures and safe-keep the privacy of sensitive information? This session will outline how each and every connected device can uphold a core root of trust via a unique cryptographic signature – a “bir...
Internet of @ThingsExpo Silicon Valley announced on Thursday its first 12 all-star speakers and sessions for its upcoming event, which will take place November 4-6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in California. @ThingsExpo, the first and largest IoT event in the world, debuted at the Javits Center in New York City in June 10-12, 2014 with over 6,000 delegates attending the conference. Among the first 12 announced world class speakers, IBM will present two highly popular IoT sessions, which will take place November 4-6, 2014 at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, Calif...
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.
WebRTC defines no default signaling protocol, causing fragmentation between WebRTC silos. SIP and XMPP provide possibilities, but come with considerable complexity and are not designed for use in a web environment. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Matthew Hodgson, technical co-founder of the Matrix.org, will discuss how Matrix is a new non-profit Open Source Project that defines both a new HTTP-based standard for VoIP & IM signaling and provides reference implementations.

SUNNYVALE, Calif., Oct. 20, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Spansion Inc. (NYSE: CODE), a global leader in embedded systems, today added 96 new products to the Spansion® FM4 Family of flexible microcontrollers (MCUs). Based on the ARM® Cortex®-M4F core, the new MCUs boast a 200 MHz operating frequency and support a diverse set of on-chip peripherals for enhanced human machine interfaces (HMIs) and machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. The rich set of periphera...

SYS-CON Events announced today that Aria Systems, the recurring revenue expert, has been named "Bronze Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4-6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Aria Systems helps leading businesses connect their customers with the products and services they love. Industry leaders like Pitney Bowes, Experian, AAA NCNU, VMware, HootSuite and many others choose Aria to power their recurring revenue business and deliver exceptional experiences to their customers.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is going to require a new way of thinking and of developing software for speed, security and innovation. This requires IT leaders to balance business as usual while anticipating for the next market and technology trends. Cloud provides the right IT asset portfolio to help today’s IT leaders manage the old and prepare for the new. Today the cloud conversation is evolving from private and public to hybrid. This session will provide use cases and insights to reinforce the value of the network in helping organizations to maximize their company’s cloud experience.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is making everything it touches smarter – smart devices, smart cars and smart cities. And lucky us, we’re just beginning to reap the benefits as we work toward a networked society. However, this technology-driven innovation is impacting more than just individuals. The IoT has an environmental impact as well, which brings us to the theme of this month’s #IoTuesday Twitter chat. The ability to remove inefficiencies through connected objects is driving change throughout every sector, including waste management. BigBelly Solar, located just outside of Boston, is trans...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Matrix.org has been named “Silver Sponsor” of Internet of @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Matrix is an ambitious new open standard for open, distributed, real-time communication over IP. It defines a new approach for interoperable Instant Messaging and VoIP based on pragmatic HTTP APIs and WebRTC, and provides open source reference implementations to showcase and bootstrap the new standard. Our focus is on simplicity, security, and supporting the fullest feature set.
Predicted by Gartner to add $1.9 trillion to the global economy by 2020, the Internet of Everything (IoE) is based on the idea that devices, systems and services will connect in simple, transparent ways, enabling seamless interactions among devices across brands and sectors. As this vision unfolds, it is clear that no single company can accomplish the level of interoperability required to support the horizontal aspects of the IoE. The AllSeen Alliance, announced in December 2013, was formed with the goal to advance IoE adoption and innovation in the connected home, healthcare, education, aut...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Red Hat, the world's leading provider of open source solutions, will exhibit at Internet of @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Red Hat is the world's leading provider of open source software solutions, using a community-powered approach to reliable and high-performing cloud, Linux, middleware, storage and virtualization technologies. Red Hat also offers award-winning support, training, and consulting services. As the connective hub in a global network of enterprises, partners, a...