Welcome!

Websphere Authors: Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Yeshim Deniz, XebiaLabs Blog

News Feed Item

A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications

NEW YORK, Jan. 3, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications

http://www.reportlinker.com/p01078600/A-Magnetic-Moment-Prospects-for-MR...

Current charge-based semiconductor storage technologies such as SRAM, DRAM, NOR flash and NAND flash face scaling challenges as geometries shrink below 20nm. As a result, a marked increase in research activity focused on alternative memory technologies has occurred over the last decade.

Non-charge storage-based memories such as FeRAM and MRAM offer fast RAM-like performance along with non-volatility and extremely high endurance. Although in commercial production, both suffer from high costs vis-à-vis current technologies and have only been able to address niche applications.

All that is likely to change with the availability of samples of in-plane spin-torque transfer MRAM (STT-MRAM) from Avalanche Technology and Everspin Technologies. These achievements are a stepping stone to next generation perpendicular STT-MRAM which promises a scalable path with the potential to broaden its appeal into mainstream consumer applications. As a consequence, the embedded and standalone non-volatile RAM markets are on the cusp of explosive growth in the next few years.

A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications offers an independent view of the opportunities and challenges presented by MRAM technology and its potential as one of the leading contenders in the emerging memory space.

Table of Contents

ContentsList of FiguresList of TablesExecutive SummaryMemory OverviewIntroductionThe Memory HierarchySRAMConceptTechnology EvolutionDRAMConceptTechnology EvolutionNOR FlashConceptTechnology EvolutionNAND FlashConceptTechnology EvolutionFerroelectric MemoriesFerroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM)Ferroelectric Transistors (FeFET)Phase Change MemoryConceptBasic OperationOther Resistive Switching MemoriesMRAMIntroductionConventional DesignToggle MRAMConceptMaterials for the Toggle-MRAM:Thermal Assisted Switching TAS-MRAMConceptMaterials for the TAS-MRAMSpin-Transfer Torque (STT) MRAMConceptMaterials for the STTThermal Stability and RetentionWrite Margin vs. ReliabilityScalabilityMaterials with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy (PMA)Domain wall (DW) motion MRAMConceptMaterials for the DW-Motion MRAM CellIncreasing the Bit Density With Multi Level Cells (MLC)MLC Based on Single MTJsMLC Based on Parallel Connected MTJsMLC Based on Series Connected MTJsMLC Based on Domain Wall MotionMLC ProgrammingTwo-Step ProgrammingProbabilistic ProgrammingDesign and ArchitectureSTT-MRAM Cell Design1T-1MTJ2T-1MTJShared Source-Line (-Plane)Selection DeviceSensing SchemesData Retention RelaxationRacetrack MemoryMTJ in non-volatile logicIntroductionNon-volatile Latch/Flip-FlopNon-volatile AdderNon-volatile Look-up Table (LUT)Spin-logicMRAM FabricationProcess flowElement shape3D IntegrationMRAM Cost DriversProcess ComplexityCell EfficiencyYieldCost per BitMemory ComparisonMRAM CharacteristicsSwitching TimeCurrent / Power ConsumptionRetention TimeEndurance and Wear LevelingECCScalingMRAM vs. DRAMMRAM vs. FlashMRAM vs. SRAMMRAM vs. FeRAMMRAM vs. PCMRoadmapMRAM StatusAeroflex, Inc.Avalanche TechnologyCrocus TechnologyEverspin Technologies, Inc.Freescale SemiconductorHitachi Ltd.Honeywell International, Inc.IBM Corp.Infineon Technologies AGIntel Corp.Magsil CorporationMicromem Technologies, Inc.Micron TechnologyNEC Corp.NVE Corp.Qualcomm, Inc.Renesas TechnologySamsung ElectronicsSK Hynix SemiconductorSpin Transfer TechnologiesSpingate Technology LLCSPINTECST MicroelectronicsTaiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing CompanyToshiba Corp.Tower Semiconductor Ltd.Market and ApplicationsIntroductionEmbedded MRAM MarketRequirement For Successful eMRAM Market EntryProcessor Companion Devices with Battery-backed SRAM and Real-time ClockSet-top box MCU using EEPROM or Battery-Backed SRAMRF ID Devices, Smartcards, and e-PassportsSmart MetersMobile Baseband SOCsMobile Application Processor SoCsEmbedded nvRAM Market ForecastBB-SRAMFERAMnvSRAMMRAMMarket for nvRAM Product Revenue by TechnologyEmbedded MRAM Market and Applications OutlookStandalone MRAM MarketMemory Market Segmentation Based Upon Price/Bit and Feature Sets DifferentiationMRAM as an SRAM ReplacementMRAM as a Non-volatile RAMRAID Write Index ApplicationSmartMeter Datalog ApplicationOther nvRAM ApplicationsMRAM as a DRAM ReplacementHigh Density DRAM-compatible MRAM ApplicationsInstant-on Embedded Controller MemoryRAID Non-volatile Cache MemoryHDD Non-volatile Buffer MemoryEnterprise SSD Metadata Cache/BufferMobile Chipset MemoryMRAM as a Storage Class MemoryStandalone MRAM Market and Applications SummaryReferencesAbout the AuthorsAbout Forward InsightsServicesContactAbout NamLabContact

List of Figures

Figure 1. Memory HierarchyFigure 2. SRAM Cell SchematicFigure 3. Monolithic 3D SRAM TechnologyFigure 4. DRAM Cell SchematicFigure 5. DRAM Cell Transistor EvolutionFigure 6. DRAM Cell Capacitor TrendFigure 7. NOR Flash Cell (ETOX: EPROM thin oxide cell)Figure 8. NOR ArchitectureFigure 9. NOR Flash CellFigure 10. NOR Flash Technology EvolutionFigure 11. Drain Bias MarginFigure 12. Multi-bit Charge Trapping CellFigure 13. NAND ArchitectureFigure 14. NAND Cell StringFigure 15. NAND Flash Technology EvolutionFigure 16. NAND Flash Memory Gap Fill at 63nm and Flat Memory Cell at 20nmFigure 17. Electrons Stored on the Floating GateFigure 18. Operation of a FeRAM MemoryFigure 19. Ferroelectric Field Effect TransistorFigure 20. Basic PCM Cell Structure and Cell OperationFigure 21. Resistive Switching EffectsFigure 22. MRAM-Cell RequirementsFigure 23. Schematic View of (a) Field-Induced Switching MRAM and (b) STT MRAM.Figure 24. MRAM Operation with Field-Induced SwitchingFigure 25. Switching Field Threshold for Permalloy Magnetic Elements of Different Ends.Figure 26. Program Operation in the Toggle Switching Scheme MRAM DesignFigure 27. Toggle-MRAM Cell with a Select TransistorFigure 28. MTJ Layer Stack and the Uniformity RequirementsFigure 29. Writing Procedure for (a) a Conventional MRAM Cell and (b) TAS MRAM CellFigure 30. MTJ Design for a) Conventional Field Driven Approach and b) TAS ApproachFigure 31. Architecture of a TAS-MRAM Memory ArrayFigure 32. Influence of the Thickness of an IrMn Layer on the Exchange Bias FieldFigure 33. Area Dependency of the Write Power for a TAS-MRAM CellFigure 34. TAS-MRAM Cell Material Stack and Write Power Density vs. Junction AreaFigure 35. Material Stack for a Double Barrier MTJ with one Thermal BarrierFigure 36. Spin Torque Transfer MRAM ConceptFigure 37. Schematic View of a Typical STT Memory Element and TEM Cross-SectionFigure 38. Illustration of the Spin Polarization Enhancement for a Dual Barrier StructureFigure 39. Normalized Switching Current Thresholds vs. Magneto-Resistance RatioFigure 40. STT-MRAM Write Current Scaling for Different MTJ StructuresFigure 41. Required Room Temperature Values for ?HFigure 42. Calculated Single Bit Cycle to Cycle Read Error Rate for three ?I ValuesFigure 43. Measured Critical Switching Voltage and Break Down Voltage DistributionsFigure 44. Switching Probability vs. Switching Pulse WidthFigure 45. BER Curves Showing a Bifurcated Switching,Figure 46. Planar MTJ Scaling: Thickness and Switching Current Density vs. Cell WidthFigure 47. Comparison of (a) In-Plane STT-MRAM and (b) Perpendicular STT-MRAM.Figure 48. Illustration of Perpendicular STT-MRAM DesignFigure 49. Scaling of Critical Switching Current for In-Plane and Perpend. MTJ ElementsFigure 50. Possible Cell Structure and Operation Principle of the DW-Motion MRAM CellFigure 51. DW-Motion Cell Structure a) and Cross-Sectional TEM Image b)Figure 52. DW-Motion Velocity in a Co/Ni Nano-Laminate Free LayerFigure 53. MLC in Single MTJs - Calculated TMR RatioFigure 54. Schematic Illustration of MLC-MTJFigure 55. MLC STT-MRAM Cell with Series Connected MTJsFigure 56. Stacked MTJ Cell Fabrication and Bit Cost ScalingFigure 57. MLC with Field Compensation LayerFigure 58. Schematic Representation of MLC Cell Based on Domain Wall MotionFigure 59. State Transition Graphs of Write SchemesFigure 60. Probabilistic ProgrammingFigure 61. 1T-1MTJ STT-MRAM StructureFigure 62. 2T1MTJ Structure and LayoutFigure 63. Shared SourceLine: a) Schematic and b) LayoutFigure 64. MTJ Current Scaling Compared to the Current Scaling of Select DevicesFigure 65. Non-Destructive Self-Reference Sensing Scheme:Figure 66. Comparison of Different MTJ Designs at 350K:Figure 67. Magnetic Racetrack Memory – a 3D Shift RegisterFigure 68. The Circuit Diagram of Non-volatile Latch Fabricated by NECFigure 69. The Circuit Diagram of Non-volatile Latch Designed by STMicroelectonicsFigure 70. Non-volatile Adder Fabricated by Hitachi.Figure 71. Non-volatile Lookup-Table Fabricated by HitcathiFigure 72. Schematic of Programmable Spin-LogicFigure 73. MRAM Sputtering Cluster ToolsFigure 74. Schematic Cross Sectional View of an MRAM Module in the Back End Of LineFigure 75. SEM Cross Section of CMOS Chip with Back End Of Line MTJ MRAMFigure 76. Top view of MTJ, TEM Cross-Section and Key Process Flow of STT-MRAMFigure 77. Cross Section of 4Mb MRAM Product and Top-View of the Tunnel JunctionFigure 78. Trade-Off Between Operating Time and Writing Current of the STT-MTJFigure 79. Operation of the Proposed Lookback SchemeFigure 80. Block Diagram of a Cache With Lookback SchemeFigure 81. Minimum ? (Thermal Stability) Required to Get a 10 Year MTTF.Figure 82. The Dual-ECC Memory Architecture with Intrinsic and Extrinsic ECCs.Figure 83. Cell Size TrendFigure 84. Memory Density TrendFigure 85. MRAM Papers Presented at VLSI Symposium and IEDMFigure 86. Everspin 64Mb ST-MRAM Die PhotoFigure 87. 54nm STT-MRAMFigure 88. OST-MRAM vs. Conventional MRAMFigure 89. Spingate's Roadmap and Target MarketFigure 90. Re-write Current Density and MR RatioFigure 91. 30-Nanometer Diameter MTJFigure 92. Crocus-TowerJazz TAS- MRAMFigure 93. Device CharacteristicsFigure 94. eFlash and NOR Flash Memory MarketFigure 95. MRAM as Converged Embedded MemoryFigure 96. Toggle Mode MRAM Uses Higher Write Power to Generate Magnetic FieldsFigure 97. Spin Torque MRAM Directly Switches MTJ Using Current Through CellFigure 98. Cubic Corporation GoCard used eFERAM RF ID ChipFigure 99. Processor with Hybrid Cache MemoryFigure 100. Market for Embedded nvRAM Products by TechnologyFigure 101. Embedded MRAM Value by Application SegmentFigure 102. Standalone Memory MarketFigure 103. Memory Price per MB TrendsFigure 104. Volatile Memory PyramidFigure 105. Non-volatile Memory PyramidFigure 106. SRAM MarketFigure 107. Battery-Backed SRAM and nvSRAMFigure 108. RAID Disk Controller Showing RAID Write Journal and Cache MemoriesFigure 109. Comparison of HDD Recording MethodsFigure 110. Buffalo's SSD with MRAM cacheFigure 111. Concept of Storage Class MemoryFigure 113. Price per Megabyte Trend of Conventional and Emerging Memory TechnologiesFigure 114. nvRAM Market ForecastFigure 115. Standalone MRAM Market by Application Segment

List of Tables

Table 1. Comparison of In-Plane and Perpendicular MTJTable 2. Comparison of Conventional CMOS Adder and the Non-volatile AdderTable 3. Estimated Process Complexity for a STT-MRAM ManufacturingTable 4. Relative Cost Estimation for STT-MRAM Compared to DRAM and NAND FlashTable 5. Memory ComparisonTable 6. Embedded Memory RoadmapTable 7. Standalone Memory RoadmapTable 8. Spingate's ps-MRAM vs. Other Memory TechnologiesTable 9. Key Parameters for eNVM ApplicationsTable 10. Market for Embedded nvRAM Products by TechnologyTable 11. Embedded MRAM Technology and Applications RoadmapTable 12. Embedded MRAM Revenue and Units by ApplicationTable 13. Standalone MRAM Technology, Density and Applications RoadmapTable 14. Price per Megabyte Trend of Conventional and Emerging Memory TechnologiesTable 15. Detailed MRAM Forecast (Revenue & Units)

To order this report:Electronic_Component_and_Semiconductor Industry: A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications

Nicolas Bombourg

Reportlinker

Email: nicolasbombourg@reportlinker.com

US: (805)652-2626

Intl: +1 805-652-2626

SOURCE Reportlinker

More Stories By PR Newswire

Copyright © 2007 PR Newswire. All rights reserved. Republication or redistribution of PRNewswire content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of PRNewswire. PRNewswire shall not be liable for any errors or delays in the content, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon.

@ThingsExpo Stories
The Industrial Internet revolution is now underway, enabled by connected machines and billions of devices that communicate and collaborate. The massive amounts of Big Data requiring real-time analysis is flooding legacy IT systems and giving way to cloud environments that can handle the unpredictable workloads. Yet many barriers remain until we can fully realize the opportunities and benefits from the convergence of machines and devices with Big Data and the cloud, including interoperability, data security and privacy.
SYS-CON Media announced that Cisco, a worldwide leader in IT that helps companies seize the opportunities of tomorrow, has launched a new ad campaign in Cloud Computing Journal. The ad campaign, a webcast titled 'Is Your Data Center Ready for the Application Economy?', focuses on the latest data center networking technologies, including SDN or ACI, and how customers are using SDN and ACI in their organizations to achieve business agility. The Cisco webcast is available on-demand.
IoT is still a vague buzzword for many people. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Kavis, Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Partners, discussed the business value of IoT that goes far beyond the general public's perception that IoT is all about wearables and home consumer services. He also discussed how IoT is perceived by investors and how venture capitalist access this space. Other topics discussed were barriers to success, what is new, what is old, and what the future may hold. Mike Kavis is Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Pa...
Dale Kim is the Director of Industry Solutions at MapR. His background includes a variety of technical and management roles at information technology companies. While his experience includes work with relational databases, much of his career pertains to non-relational data in the areas of search, content management, and NoSQL, and includes senior roles in technical marketing, sales engineering, and support engineering. Dale holds an MBA from Santa Clara University, and a BA in Computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly in the process of breaking from its heretofore relatively obscure enterprise applications (such as plant floor control and supply chain management) and going mainstream into the consumer space. More and more creative folks are interconnecting everyday products such as household items, mobile devices, appliances and cars, and unleashing new and imaginative scenarios. We are seeing a lot of excitement around applications in home automation, personal fitness, and in-car entertainment and this excitement will bleed into other areas. On the commercial side, m...
The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to evolve the way the world does business; however, understanding how to apply it to your company can be a mystery. Most people struggle with understanding the potential business uses or tend to get caught up in the technology, resulting in solutions that fail to meet even minimum business goals. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jesse Shiah, CEO / President / Co-Founder of AgilePoint Inc., showed what is needed to leverage the IoT to transform your business. He discussed opportunities and challenges ahead for the IoT from a market and technical point of vie...
Things are being built upon cloud foundations to transform organizations. This CEO Power Panel at 15th Cloud Expo, moderated by Roger Strukhoff, Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo conference chair, addressed the big issues involving these technologies and, more important, the results they will achieve. Rodney Rogers, chairman and CEO of Virtustream; Brendan O'Brien, co-founder of Aria Systems, Bart Copeland, president and CEO of ActiveState Software; Jim Cowie, chief scientist at Dyn; Dave Wagstaff, VP and chief architect at BSQUARE Corporation; Seth Proctor, CTO of NuoDB, Inc.; and Andris Gailitis, C...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CodeFutures, a leading supplier of database performance tools, has been named a “Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. CodeFutures is an independent software vendor focused on providing tools that deliver database performance tools that increase productivity during database development and increase database performance and scalability during production.
Today’s enterprise is being driven by disruptive competitive and human capital requirements to provide enterprise application access through not only desktops, but also mobile devices. To retrofit existing programs across all these devices using traditional programming methods is very costly and time consuming – often prohibitively so. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jesse Shiah, CEO, President, and Co-Founder of AgilePoint Inc., discussed how you can create applications that run on all mobile devices as well as laptops and desktops using a visual drag-and-drop application – and eForms-buildi...
"People are a lot more knowledgeable about APIs now. There are two types of people who work with APIs - IT people who want to use APIs for something internal and the product managers who want to do something outside APIs for people to connect to them," explained Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at Cloud Expo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Performance is the intersection of power, agility, control, and choice. If you value performance, and more specifically consistent performance, you need to look beyond simple virtualized compute. Many factors need to be considered to create a truly performant environment. In his General Session at 15th Cloud Expo, Harold Hannon, Sr. Software Architect at SoftLayer, discussed how to take advantage of a multitude of compute options and platform features to make cloud the cornerstone of your online presence.
SYS-CON Media announced that Splunk, a provider of the leading software platform for real-time Operational Intelligence, has launched an ad campaign on Big Data Journal. Splunk software and cloud services enable organizations to search, monitor, analyze and visualize machine-generated big data coming from websites, applications, servers, networks, sensors and mobile devices. The ads focus on delivering ROI - how improved uptime delivered $6M in annual ROI, improving customer operations by mining large volumes of unstructured data, and how data tracking delivers uptime when it matters most.
Almost everyone sees the potential of Internet of Things but how can businesses truly unlock that potential. The key will be in the ability to discover business insight in the midst of an ocean of Big Data generated from billions of embedded devices via Systems of Discover. Businesses will also need to ensure that they can sustain that insight by leveraging the cloud for global reach, scale and elasticity.
“The age of the Internet of Things is upon us,” stated Thomas Svensson, senior vice-president and general manager EMEA, ThingWorx, “and working with forward-thinking companies, such as Elisa, enables us to deploy our leading technology so that customers can profit from complete, end-to-end solutions.” ThingWorx, a PTC® (Nasdaq: PTC) business and Internet of Things (IoT) platform provider, announced on Monday that Elisa, Finnish provider of mobile and fixed broadband subscriptions, will deploy ThingWorx® platform technology to enable a new Elisa IoT service in Finland and Estonia.
Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) are increasing at an unprecedented rate. The threat landscape of today is drastically different than just a few years ago. Attacks are much more organized and sophisticated. They are harder to detect and even harder to anticipate. In the foreseeable future it's going to get a whole lot harder. Everything you know today will change. Keeping up with this changing landscape is already a daunting task. Your organization needs to use the latest tools, methods and expertise to guard against those threats. But will that be enough? In the foreseeable future attacks w...
As enterprises move to all-IP networks and cloud-based applications, communications service providers (CSPs) – facing increased competition from over-the-top providers delivering content via the Internet and independently of CSPs – must be able to offer seamless cloud-based communication and collaboration solutions that can scale for small, midsize, and large enterprises, as well as public sector organizations, in order to keep and grow market share. The latest version of Oracle Communications Unified Communications Suite gives CSPs the capability to do just that. In addition, its integration ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that ActiveState, the leading independent Cloud Foundry and Docker-based PaaS provider, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's DevOps Summit New York, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. ActiveState believes that enterprises gain a competitive advantage when they are able to quickly create, deploy and efficiently manage software solutions that immediately create business value, but they face many challenges that prevent them from doing so. The Company is uniquely positioned to help address these challenges thro...
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, shared some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, a...
We certainly live in interesting technological times. And no more interesting than the current competing IoT standards for connectivity. Various standards bodies, approaches, and ecosystems are vying for mindshare and positioning for a competitive edge. It is clear that when the dust settles, we will have new protocols, evolved protocols, that will change the way we interact with devices and infrastructure. We will also have evolved web protocols, like HTTP/2, that will be changing the very core of our infrastructures. At the same time, we have old approaches made new again like micro-services...
Disruptive macro trends in technology are impacting and dramatically changing the "art of the possible" relative to supply chain management practices through the innovative use of IoT, cloud, machine learning and Big Data to enable connected ecosystems of engagement. Enterprise informatics can now move beyond point solutions that merely monitor the past and implement integrated enterprise fabrics that enable end-to-end supply chain visibility to improve customer service delivery and optimize supplier management. Learn about enterprise architecture strategies for designing connected systems tha...