|By PR Newswire||
|January 3, 2013 07:20 AM EST||
NEW YORK, Jan. 3, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications
Current charge-based semiconductor storage technologies such as SRAM, DRAM, NOR flash and NAND flash face scaling challenges as geometries shrink below 20nm. As a result, a marked increase in research activity focused on alternative memory technologies has occurred over the last decade.
Non-charge storage-based memories such as FeRAM and MRAM offer fast RAM-like performance along with non-volatility and extremely high endurance. Although in commercial production, both suffer from high costs vis-à-vis current technologies and have only been able to address niche applications.
All that is likely to change with the availability of samples of in-plane spin-torque transfer MRAM (STT-MRAM) from Avalanche Technology and Everspin Technologies. These achievements are a stepping stone to next generation perpendicular STT-MRAM which promises a scalable path with the potential to broaden its appeal into mainstream consumer applications. As a consequence, the embedded and standalone non-volatile RAM markets are on the cusp of explosive growth in the next few years.
A Magnetic Moment: Prospects for MRAM Technology, Markets and Applications offers an independent view of the opportunities and challenges presented by MRAM technology and its potential as one of the leading contenders in the emerging memory space.Table of Contents
ContentsList of FiguresList of TablesExecutive SummaryMemory OverviewIntroductionThe Memory HierarchySRAMConceptTechnology EvolutionDRAMConceptTechnology EvolutionNOR FlashConceptTechnology EvolutionNAND FlashConceptTechnology EvolutionFerroelectric MemoriesFerroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM)Ferroelectric Transistors (FeFET)Phase Change MemoryConceptBasic OperationOther Resistive Switching MemoriesMRAMIntroductionConventional DesignToggle MRAMConceptMaterials for the Toggle-MRAM:Thermal Assisted Switching TAS-MRAMConceptMaterials for the TAS-MRAMSpin-Transfer Torque (STT) MRAMConceptMaterials for the STTThermal Stability and RetentionWrite Margin vs. ReliabilityScalabilityMaterials with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy (PMA)Domain wall (DW) motion MRAMConceptMaterials for the DW-Motion MRAM CellIncreasing the Bit Density With Multi Level Cells (MLC)MLC Based on Single MTJsMLC Based on Parallel Connected MTJsMLC Based on Series Connected MTJsMLC Based on Domain Wall MotionMLC ProgrammingTwo-Step ProgrammingProbabilistic ProgrammingDesign and ArchitectureSTT-MRAM Cell Design1T-1MTJ2T-1MTJShared Source-Line (-Plane)Selection DeviceSensing SchemesData Retention RelaxationRacetrack MemoryMTJ in non-volatile logicIntroductionNon-volatile Latch/Flip-FlopNon-volatile AdderNon-volatile Look-up Table (LUT)Spin-logicMRAM FabricationProcess flowElement shape3D IntegrationMRAM Cost DriversProcess ComplexityCell EfficiencyYieldCost per BitMemory ComparisonMRAM CharacteristicsSwitching TimeCurrent / Power ConsumptionRetention TimeEndurance and Wear LevelingECCScalingMRAM vs. DRAMMRAM vs. FlashMRAM vs. SRAMMRAM vs. FeRAMMRAM vs. PCMRoadmapMRAM StatusAeroflex, Inc.Avalanche TechnologyCrocus TechnologyEverspin Technologies, Inc.Freescale SemiconductorHitachi Ltd.Honeywell International, Inc.IBM Corp.Infineon Technologies AGIntel Corp.Magsil CorporationMicromem Technologies, Inc.Micron TechnologyNEC Corp.NVE Corp.Qualcomm, Inc.Renesas TechnologySamsung ElectronicsSK Hynix SemiconductorSpin Transfer TechnologiesSpingate Technology LLCSPINTECST MicroelectronicsTaiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing CompanyToshiba Corp.Tower Semiconductor Ltd.Market and ApplicationsIntroductionEmbedded MRAM MarketRequirement For Successful eMRAM Market EntryProcessor Companion Devices with Battery-backed SRAM and Real-time ClockSet-top box MCU using EEPROM or Battery-Backed SRAMRF ID Devices, Smartcards, and e-PassportsSmart MetersMobile Baseband SOCsMobile Application Processor SoCsEmbedded nvRAM Market ForecastBB-SRAMFERAMnvSRAMMRAMMarket for nvRAM Product Revenue by TechnologyEmbedded MRAM Market and Applications OutlookStandalone MRAM MarketMemory Market Segmentation Based Upon Price/Bit and Feature Sets DifferentiationMRAM as an SRAM ReplacementMRAM as a Non-volatile RAMRAID Write Index ApplicationSmartMeter Datalog ApplicationOther nvRAM ApplicationsMRAM as a DRAM ReplacementHigh Density DRAM-compatible MRAM ApplicationsInstant-on Embedded Controller MemoryRAID Non-volatile Cache MemoryHDD Non-volatile Buffer MemoryEnterprise SSD Metadata Cache/BufferMobile Chipset MemoryMRAM as a Storage Class MemoryStandalone MRAM Market and Applications SummaryReferencesAbout the AuthorsAbout Forward InsightsServicesContactAbout NamLabContactList of Figures
Figure 1. Memory HierarchyFigure 2. SRAM Cell SchematicFigure 3. Monolithic 3D SRAM TechnologyFigure 4. DRAM Cell SchematicFigure 5. DRAM Cell Transistor EvolutionFigure 6. DRAM Cell Capacitor TrendFigure 7. NOR Flash Cell (ETOX: EPROM thin oxide cell)Figure 8. NOR ArchitectureFigure 9. NOR Flash CellFigure 10. NOR Flash Technology EvolutionFigure 11. Drain Bias MarginFigure 12. Multi-bit Charge Trapping CellFigure 13. NAND ArchitectureFigure 14. NAND Cell StringFigure 15. NAND Flash Technology EvolutionFigure 16. NAND Flash Memory Gap Fill at 63nm and Flat Memory Cell at 20nmFigure 17. Electrons Stored on the Floating GateFigure 18. Operation of a FeRAM MemoryFigure 19. Ferroelectric Field Effect TransistorFigure 20. Basic PCM Cell Structure and Cell OperationFigure 21. Resistive Switching EffectsFigure 22. MRAM-Cell RequirementsFigure 23. Schematic View of (a) Field-Induced Switching MRAM and (b) STT MRAM.Figure 24. MRAM Operation with Field-Induced SwitchingFigure 25. Switching Field Threshold for Permalloy Magnetic Elements of Different Ends.Figure 26. Program Operation in the Toggle Switching Scheme MRAM DesignFigure 27. Toggle-MRAM Cell with a Select TransistorFigure 28. MTJ Layer Stack and the Uniformity RequirementsFigure 29. Writing Procedure for (a) a Conventional MRAM Cell and (b) TAS MRAM CellFigure 30. MTJ Design for a) Conventional Field Driven Approach and b) TAS ApproachFigure 31. Architecture of a TAS-MRAM Memory ArrayFigure 32. Influence of the Thickness of an IrMn Layer on the Exchange Bias FieldFigure 33. Area Dependency of the Write Power for a TAS-MRAM CellFigure 34. TAS-MRAM Cell Material Stack and Write Power Density vs. Junction AreaFigure 35. Material Stack for a Double Barrier MTJ with one Thermal BarrierFigure 36. Spin Torque Transfer MRAM ConceptFigure 37. Schematic View of a Typical STT Memory Element and TEM Cross-SectionFigure 38. Illustration of the Spin Polarization Enhancement for a Dual Barrier StructureFigure 39. Normalized Switching Current Thresholds vs. Magneto-Resistance RatioFigure 40. STT-MRAM Write Current Scaling for Different MTJ StructuresFigure 41. Required Room Temperature Values for ?HFigure 42. Calculated Single Bit Cycle to Cycle Read Error Rate for three ?I ValuesFigure 43. Measured Critical Switching Voltage and Break Down Voltage DistributionsFigure 44. Switching Probability vs. Switching Pulse WidthFigure 45. BER Curves Showing a Bifurcated Switching,Figure 46. Planar MTJ Scaling: Thickness and Switching Current Density vs. Cell WidthFigure 47. Comparison of (a) In-Plane STT-MRAM and (b) Perpendicular STT-MRAM.Figure 48. Illustration of Perpendicular STT-MRAM DesignFigure 49. Scaling of Critical Switching Current for In-Plane and Perpend. MTJ ElementsFigure 50. Possible Cell Structure and Operation Principle of the DW-Motion MRAM CellFigure 51. DW-Motion Cell Structure a) and Cross-Sectional TEM Image b)Figure 52. DW-Motion Velocity in a Co/Ni Nano-Laminate Free LayerFigure 53. MLC in Single MTJs - Calculated TMR RatioFigure 54. Schematic Illustration of MLC-MTJFigure 55. MLC STT-MRAM Cell with Series Connected MTJsFigure 56. Stacked MTJ Cell Fabrication and Bit Cost ScalingFigure 57. MLC with Field Compensation LayerFigure 58. Schematic Representation of MLC Cell Based on Domain Wall MotionFigure 59. State Transition Graphs of Write SchemesFigure 60. Probabilistic ProgrammingFigure 61. 1T-1MTJ STT-MRAM StructureFigure 62. 2T1MTJ Structure and LayoutFigure 63. Shared SourceLine: a) Schematic and b) LayoutFigure 64. MTJ Current Scaling Compared to the Current Scaling of Select DevicesFigure 65. Non-Destructive Self-Reference Sensing Scheme:Figure 66. Comparison of Different MTJ Designs at 350K:Figure 67. Magnetic Racetrack Memory – a 3D Shift RegisterFigure 68. The Circuit Diagram of Non-volatile Latch Fabricated by NECFigure 69. The Circuit Diagram of Non-volatile Latch Designed by STMicroelectonicsFigure 70. Non-volatile Adder Fabricated by Hitachi.Figure 71. Non-volatile Lookup-Table Fabricated by HitcathiFigure 72. Schematic of Programmable Spin-LogicFigure 73. MRAM Sputtering Cluster ToolsFigure 74. Schematic Cross Sectional View of an MRAM Module in the Back End Of LineFigure 75. SEM Cross Section of CMOS Chip with Back End Of Line MTJ MRAMFigure 76. Top view of MTJ, TEM Cross-Section and Key Process Flow of STT-MRAMFigure 77. Cross Section of 4Mb MRAM Product and Top-View of the Tunnel JunctionFigure 78. Trade-Off Between Operating Time and Writing Current of the STT-MTJFigure 79. Operation of the Proposed Lookback SchemeFigure 80. Block Diagram of a Cache With Lookback SchemeFigure 81. Minimum ? (Thermal Stability) Required to Get a 10 Year MTTF.Figure 82. The Dual-ECC Memory Architecture with Intrinsic and Extrinsic ECCs.Figure 83. Cell Size TrendFigure 84. Memory Density TrendFigure 85. MRAM Papers Presented at VLSI Symposium and IEDMFigure 86. Everspin 64Mb ST-MRAM Die PhotoFigure 87. 54nm STT-MRAMFigure 88. OST-MRAM vs. Conventional MRAMFigure 89. Spingate's Roadmap and Target MarketFigure 90. Re-write Current Density and MR RatioFigure 91. 30-Nanometer Diameter MTJFigure 92. Crocus-TowerJazz TAS- MRAMFigure 93. Device CharacteristicsFigure 94. eFlash and NOR Flash Memory MarketFigure 95. MRAM as Converged Embedded MemoryFigure 96. Toggle Mode MRAM Uses Higher Write Power to Generate Magnetic FieldsFigure 97. Spin Torque MRAM Directly Switches MTJ Using Current Through CellFigure 98. Cubic Corporation GoCard used eFERAM RF ID ChipFigure 99. Processor with Hybrid Cache MemoryFigure 100. Market for Embedded nvRAM Products by TechnologyFigure 101. Embedded MRAM Value by Application SegmentFigure 102. Standalone Memory MarketFigure 103. Memory Price per MB TrendsFigure 104. Volatile Memory PyramidFigure 105. Non-volatile Memory PyramidFigure 106. SRAM MarketFigure 107. Battery-Backed SRAM and nvSRAMFigure 108. RAID Disk Controller Showing RAID Write Journal and Cache MemoriesFigure 109. Comparison of HDD Recording MethodsFigure 110. Buffalo's SSD with MRAM cacheFigure 111. Concept of Storage Class MemoryFigure 113. Price per Megabyte Trend of Conventional and Emerging Memory TechnologiesFigure 114. nvRAM Market ForecastFigure 115. Standalone MRAM Market by Application SegmentList of Tables
Table 1. Comparison of In-Plane and Perpendicular MTJTable 2. Comparison of Conventional CMOS Adder and the Non-volatile AdderTable 3. Estimated Process Complexity for a STT-MRAM ManufacturingTable 4. Relative Cost Estimation for STT-MRAM Compared to DRAM and NAND FlashTable 5. Memory ComparisonTable 6. Embedded Memory RoadmapTable 7. Standalone Memory RoadmapTable 8. Spingate's ps-MRAM vs. Other Memory TechnologiesTable 9. Key Parameters for eNVM ApplicationsTable 10. Market for Embedded nvRAM Products by TechnologyTable 11. Embedded MRAM Technology and Applications RoadmapTable 12. Embedded MRAM Revenue and Units by ApplicationTable 13. Standalone MRAM Technology, Density and Applications RoadmapTable 14. Price per Megabyte Trend of Conventional and Emerging Memory TechnologiesTable 15. Detailed MRAM Forecast (Revenue & Units)
Intl: +1 805-652-2626
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, wh...
Jun. 26, 2016 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 910
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - comp...
Jun. 26, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,224
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Jun. 26, 2016 04:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,247
Connected devices and the industrial internet are growing exponentially every year with Cisco expecting 50 billion devices to be in operation by 2020. In this period of growth, location-based insights are becoming invaluable to many businesses as they adopt new connected technologies. Knowing when and where these devices connect from is critical for a number of scenarios in supply chain management, disaster management, emergency response, M2M, location marketing and more. In his session at @Th...
Jun. 26, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 924
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his Day 2 Keynote at @ThingsExpo, Henrik Kenani Dahlgren, Portfolio Marketing Manager at Ericsson, discussed how to plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change t...
Jun. 26, 2016 02:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,114
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Jun. 26, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 738
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
Jun. 26, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,272
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
Jun. 26, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,095
There is little doubt that Big Data solutions will have an increasing role in the Enterprise IT mainstream over time. Big Data at Cloud Expo - to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - has announced its Call for Papers is open. Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is...
Jun. 26, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,328
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
Jun. 26, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,056
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
Jun. 26, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,050
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
Jun. 26, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 574
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
Jun. 26, 2016 08:45 AM EDT Reads: 716
Cognitive Computing is becoming the foundation for a new generation of solutions that have the potential to transform business. Unlike traditional approaches to building solutions, a cognitive computing approach allows the data to help determine the way applications are designed. This contrasts with conventional software development that begins with defining logic based on the current way a business operates. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Judith S. Hurwitz, President and CEO of Hurwitz & ...
Jun. 25, 2016 03:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,570
SYS-CON Events announced today that Bsquare has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For more than two decades, Bsquare has helped its customers extract business value from a broad array of physical assets by making them intelligent, connecting them, and using the data they generate to optimize business processes.
Jun. 25, 2016 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,189
Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is expected in the amount of information being processed, managed, analyzed, and acted upon by enterprise IT. This amazing is not part of some distant future - it is happening today. One report shows a 650% increase in enterprise data by 2020. Other estimates are even higher....
Jun. 25, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,271
SYS-CON Events announced today that ReadyTalk, a leading provider of online conferencing and webinar services, has been named Vendor Presentation Sponsor at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ReadyTalk delivers audio and web conferencing services that inspire collaboration and enable the Future of Work for today’s increasingly digital and mobile workforce. By combining intuitive, innovative tec...
Jun. 24, 2016 01:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,341
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their backend AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT - especially in the connected home and office. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Kocher, founder and managing director of Grey Heron, explained how Amazon is extending its reach to become a major force in IoT by building on its dominant cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strat...
Jun. 24, 2016 12:00 PM EDT Reads: 1,618
industrial company for a multi-year contract initially valued at over $4.0 million. In addition to DataV software, Bsquare will also provide comprehensive systems integration, support and maintenance services. DataV leverages advanced data analytics, predictive reasoning, data-driven diagnostics, and automated orchestration of remediation actions in order to improve asset uptime while reducing service and warranty costs.
Jun. 22, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,363
Vidyo, Inc., has joined the Alliance for Open Media. The Alliance for Open Media is a non-profit organization working to define and develop media technologies that address the need for an open standard for video compression and delivery over the web. As a member of the Alliance, Vidyo will collaborate with industry leaders in pursuit of an open and royalty-free AOMedia Video codec, AV1. Vidyo’s contributions to the organization will bring to bear its long history of expertise in codec technolo...
Jun. 19, 2016 12:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,260