Welcome!

IBM Cloud Authors: Kevin Benedict, Jyoti Bansal, Yeshim Deniz, PagerDuty Blog, Elizabeth White

Blog Feed Post

Deja VVVu: Others Claiming Gartner’s Construct for Big Data

By

This article originally appeared on the Gartner Blog Network in January 2012 and is reprinted here with permission from Gartner and its author Doug Laney

In the late 1990s, while a META Group analyst (Note: META is now part of Gartner), it was becoming evident that our clients increasingly were encumbered by their data assets.  While many pundits were talking about, many clients were lamenting, and many vendors were seizing the opportunity of these fast-growing data stores, I also realized that something else was going on. Sea changes in the speed at which data was flowing mainly due to electronic commerce, along with the increasing breadth of data sources, structures and formats due to the post Y2K-ERP application boom were as or more challenging to data management teams than was the increasing quantity of data.

In an attempt to help our clients get a handle on how to recognize, and more importantly, deal with these challenges I began first speaking at industry conferences on this 3-dimensional data challenge of increasing data volume, velocity and variety.  Then in late 2000 I drafted a research note published in February 2001 entitled 3-D Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity and Variety.

Fast forward to today:  The “3V’s” framework for understanding and dealing with Big Data has now become ubiquitous.  In fact, other research firms, major vendors and consulting firms have even posited the 3Vs (or an unmistakable variant) as their own concept.  Since the original piece is no longer available in Gartner archives but is in increasing demand, I wanted to make it available here for anyone to reference and cite:

Original Research Note PDF: 3-D Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity and Variety

Date: 6 February 2001     Author: Doug Laney

3-D Data Management: Controlling Data Volume, Velocity and Variety. Current business conditions and mediums are pushing traditional data management principles to their limits, giving rise to novel and more formalized approaches.

META Trend: During 2001/02, leading enterprises will increasingly use a centralized data warehouse to define a common business vocabulary that improves internal and external collaboration. Through 2003/04, data quality and integration woes will be tempered by data profiling technologies (for generating metadata, consolidated schemas, and integration logic) and information logistics agents. By 2005/06, data, document, and knowledge management will coalesce, driven by schema-agnostic indexing strategies and portal maturity.

The effect of the e-commerce surge, a rise in merger & acquisition activity, increased collaboration, and the drive for harnessing information as a competitive catalyst is driving enterprises to higher levels of consciousness about how data is managed at its most basic level.  In 2001-02, historical, integrated databases (e.g. data warehouses, operational data stores, data marts), will be leveraged not only for intended analytical purposes, but increasingly for intra-enterprise consistency and coordination. By 2003-04, these structures (including their associated metadata) will be on par with application portfolios, organization charts and procedure manuals for defining a business to its employees and affiliates.

Data records, data structures, and definitions commonly accepted throughout an enterprise reduce fiefdoms pulling against each other due to differences in the way each perceives where the enterprise has been, is presently, and is headed.  Readily accessible current and historical records of transactions, affiliates (partners, employees, customers, suppliers), business processes (or rules), along with definitional and navigational metadata (see ADS Delta 896, 21st Century Metadata: Mapping the Enterprise Genome, 7 Aug 2000) enable employees to paddle in the same direction.  Conversely, application-specific data stores (e.g. accounts receivable versus order status), geographic-specific data stores (e.g. North American sales vs. International sales), offer conflicting, or insular views of the enterprise, that while important for feeding transactional systems, provide no “single version of the truth,” giving rise to inconsistency in the way enterprise factions function.

While enterprises struggle to consolidate systems and collapse redundant databases to enable greater operational, analytical, and collaborative consistencies, changing economic conditions have made this job more difficult.  E-commerce, in particular, has exploded data management challenges along three dimensions: volumes, velocity and variety.  In 2001/02, IT organizations must compile a variety of approaches to have at their disposal for dealing with each.

Data Volume

E-commerce channels increase the depth and breadth of data available about a transaction (or any point of interaction). The lower cost of e-channels enables and enterprise to offer its goods or services to more individuals or trading partners, and up to 10x the quantity of data about an individual transaction may be collected—thereby increasing the overall volume of data to be managed.  Furthermore, as enterprises come to see information as a tangible asset, they become reluctant to discard it.

Typically, increases in data volume are handled by purchasing additional online storage.  However as data volume increases, the relative value of each data point decreases proportionately—resulting in a poor financial justification for merely incrementing online storage. Viable alternates and supplements to hanging new disk include:

  • Implementing tiered storage systems (see SIS Delta 860, 19 Apr 2000) that cost effectively balance levels of data utility with data availability using a variety of media.
  • Limiting data collected to that which will be leveraged by current or imminent business processes
  • Limiting certain analytic structures to a percentage of statistically valid sample data.
  • Profiling data sources to identify and subsequently eliminate redundancies
  • Monitoring data usage to determine “cold spots” of unused data that can be eliminated or offloaded to tape (e.g. Ambeo, BEZ Systems, Teleran)
  • Outsourcing data management altogether (e.g. EDS, IBM)

Data Velocity

E-commerce has also increased point-of-interaction (POI) speed, and consequently the pace data used to support interactions and generated by interactions. As POI performance is increasingly perceived as a competitive differentiator (e.g. Web site response, inventory availability analysis, transaction execution, order tracking update, product/service delivery, etc.) so too is an organization’s ability to manage data velocity.  Recognizing that data velocity management is much more than a physical bandwidth and protocol issue, enterprises are implementing architectural solutions such as:

  • Operational data stores (ODSs) that periodically extract, integrate and re-organize production data for operational inquiry or tactical analysis
  • Caches that provide instant access to transaction data while buffering back-end systems from additional load and performance degradation. (Unlike ODSs, caches are updated according to adaptive business rules and have schemas that mimic the back-end source.)
  • Point-to-point (P2P) data routing between databases and applications (e.g. D2K, DataMirror) that circumvents high-latency hub-and-spoke models that are more appropriate for strategic analysis
  • Designing architectures that balance data latency with application data requirements and decision cycles, without assuming the entire information supply chain must be near real-time.

Data Variety

Through 2003/04, no greater barrier to effective data management will exist than the variety of incompatible data formats, non-aligned data structures, and inconsistent data semantics.  By this time, interchange and translation mechanisms will be built into most DBMSs. But until then, application portfolio sprawl (particularly when based on a “strategy” of autonomous software implementations due to e-commerce solution immaturity), increased partnerships, and M&A activity intensifies data variety challenges. Attempts to resolve data variety issues must be approached as an ongoing endeavor encompassing the following techniques:

  • Data profiling (e.g. Data Mentors, Metagenix) to discover hidden relationships and resolve inconsistencies across multiple data sources (see ADS898)
  • XML-based data format “universal translators” that import data into standard XML documents for export into another data format (e.g. infoShark, XML Solutions)
  • Enterprise application integration (EAI) predefined adapters (e.g. NEON, Tibco, Mercator) for acquiring and delivering data between known applications via message queues, or EAI development kits for building custom adapters.
  • Data access middleware (e.g. Information Builders’ EDA/SQL, SAS Access, OLE DB, ODBC) for direct connectivity between applications and databases
  • Distributed query management (DQM) software (e.g. Enth, InfoRay, Metagon) that adds a data routing and integration intelligence layer above “dumb” data access middleware
  • Metadata management solutions (i.e. repositories and schema standards) to capture and make available definitional metadata that can help provide contextual consistency to enterprise data
  • Advanced indexing techniques for relating (if not physically integrating) data of various incompatible types (e.g. multimedia, documents, structured data, business rules).

As with any sufficiently fashionable technology, users should expect the data management market place ebb-and-flow to yield solutions that consolidate multiple techniques and solutions that are increasingly application/environment specific. (See Figure 1 – Data Management Solutions) In selecting a technique or technology, enterprises should first perform an information audit assessing the status of their information supply chain to identify and prioritize particular data management issues.

Business Impact: Attention to data management, particularly in a climate of e-commerce and greater need for collaboration, can enable enterprises to achieve greater returns on their information assets.

Bottom Line: In 2001/02, IT organizations must look beyond traditional direct brute force physical approaches to data management.  Through 2003/04, practices for resolving e-commerce accelerated data volume, velocity and variety issues will become more formalized and diverse.  Increasingly, these techniques involve trade-offs and architectural solutions that involve and impact application portfolios and business strategy decisions.

###

Over the past decade, Gartner analysts including Regina Casonato, Anne Lapkin, Mark A. Beyer, Yvonne Genovese and Ted Friedman have continued to expand our research on this topic, identifying and refining other “big data” concepts. In September 2011 they published the tremendous research note Information Management in the 21st Century.  And in 2012, Mark Beyer and I developed and published Gartner’s updated definition of Big Data to reflect its value proposition and requirements for “new innovative forms of processing.” (See The Importance of ‘Big Data’: A Definition)

Doug Laney is a research vice president for Gartner Research, where he covers business analytics solutions and projects, information management, and data-governance-related issues. He is considered a pioneer in the field of data warehousing and created the first commercial project methodology for business intelligence/data warehouse projects. Mr. Laney is also originated the discipline of information economics (infonomics). 

Follow Doug on Twitter: @Doug_Laney

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Bob Gourley

Bob Gourley writes on enterprise IT. He is a founder and partner at Cognitio Corp and publsher of CTOvision.com

@ThingsExpo Stories
My team embarked on building a data lake for our sales and marketing data to better understand customer journeys. This required building a hybrid data pipeline to connect our cloud CRM with the new Hadoop Data Lake. One challenge is that IT was not in a position to provide support until we proved value and marketing did not have the experience, so we embarked on the journey ourselves within the product marketing team for our line of business within Progress. In his session at @BigDataExpo, Sum...
Apache Hadoop is emerging as a distributed platform for handling large and fast incoming streams of data. Predictive maintenance, supply chain optimization, and Internet-of-Things analysis are examples where Hadoop provides the scalable storage, processing, and analytics platform to gain meaningful insights from granular data that is typically only valuable from a large-scale, aggregate view. One architecture useful for capturing and analyzing streaming data is the Lambda Architecture, represent...
Things are changing so quickly in IoT that it would take a wizard to predict which ecosystem will gain the most traction. In order for IoT to reach its potential, smart devices must be able to work together. Today, there are a slew of interoperability standards being promoted by big names to make this happen: HomeKit, Brillo and Alljoyn. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Adam Justice, vice president and general manager of Grid Connect, will review what happens when smart devices don’t work togethe...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ocean9will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Ocean9 provides cloud services for Backup, Disaster Recovery (DRaaS) and instant Innovation, and redefines enterprise infrastructure with its cloud native subscription offerings for mission critical SAP workloads.
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Lachapelle, CEO of the Professional Evaluation and Certification Board (PECB), will provide an overview of various initiatives to certifiy the security of connected devices and future trends in ensuring public trust of IoT. Eric Lachapelle is the Chief Executive Officer of the Professional Evaluation and Certification Board (PECB), an international certification body. His role is to help companies and individuals to achieve professional, accredited and worldw...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Technologic Systems Inc., an embedded systems solutions company, will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Technologic Systems is an embedded systems company with headquarters in Fountain Hills, Arizona. They have been in business for 32 years, helping more than 8,000 OEM customers and building over a hundred COTS products that have never been discontinued. Technologic Systems’ pr...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named “Platinum Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY, and the 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business – from apparel to energy – is being rewritten by software. From ...
The taxi industry never saw Uber coming. Startups are a threat to incumbents like never before, and a major enabler for startups is that they are instantly “cloud ready.” If innovation moves at the pace of IT, then your company is in trouble. Why? Because your data center will not keep up with frenetic pace AWS, Microsoft and Google are rolling out new capabilities In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Don Browning, VP of Cloud Architecture at Turner, will posit that disruption is inevitable for c...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloudistics, an on-premises cloud computing company, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloudistics delivers a complete public cloud experience with composable on-premises infrastructures to medium and large enterprises. Its software-defined technology natively converges network, storage, compute, virtualization, and management into a ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Loom Systems will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Founded in 2015, Loom Systems delivers an advanced AI solution to predict and prevent problems in the digital business. Loom stands alone in the industry as an AI analysis platform requiring no prior math knowledge from operators, leveraging the existing staff to succeed in the digital era. With offices in S...
The explosion of new web/cloud/IoT-based applications and the data they generate are transforming our world right before our eyes. In this rush to adopt these new technologies, organizations are often ignoring fundamental questions concerning who owns the data and failing to ask for permission to conduct invasive surveillance of their customers. Organizations that are not transparent about how their systems gather data telemetry without offering shared data ownership risk product rejection, regu...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Interoute, owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017 at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Interoute is the owner-operator of one of Europe's largest networks and a global cloud services platform which encompasses 12 data centers, 14 virtual data centers and 31 colocation centers, with connections to 195 add...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
SYS-CON Events announced today that CrowdReviews.com has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CrowdReviews.com is a transparent online platform for determining which products and services are the best based on the opinion of the crowd. The crowd consists of Internet users that have experienced products and services first-hand and have an interest in letting other potential buyers...
SYS-CON Events announced today that T-Mobile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. As America's Un-carrier, T-Mobile US, Inc., is redefining the way consumers and businesses buy wireless services through leading product and service innovation. The Company's advanced nationwide 4G LTE network delivers outstanding wireless experiences to 67.4 million customers who are unwilling to compromise on ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Infranics will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Since 2000, Infranics has developed SysMaster Suite, which is required for the stable and efficient management of ICT infrastructure. The ICT management solution developed and provided by Infranics continues to add intelligence to the ICT infrastructure through the IMC (Infra Management Cycle) based on mathemat...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SD Times | BZ Media has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. BZ Media LLC is a high-tech media company that produces technical conferences and expositions, and publishes a magazine, newsletters and websites in the software development, SharePoint, mobile development and commercial UAV markets.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Telecom Reseller has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 6–8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Telecom Reseller reports on Unified Communications, UCaaS, BPaaS for enterprise and SMBs. They report extensively on both customer premises based solutions such as IP-PBX as well as cloud based and hosted platforms.
"I think that everyone recognizes that for IoT to really realize its full potential and value that it is about creating ecosystems and marketplaces and that no single vendor is able to support what is required," explained Esmeralda Swartz, VP, Marketing Enterprise and Cloud at Ericsson, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
In his keynote at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Director of IoT Engineering at Citrix and co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, focused on building an IoT platform and company. He provided a behind-the-scenes look at Octoblu’s platform, business, and pivots along the way (including the Citrix acquisition of Octoblu).