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IBM Reports 2012 Fourth-Quarter and Full-Year Results

IBM (NYSE: IBM)

Fourth-Quarter 2012:

  • Diluted EPS:
    • GAAP: $5.13, up 11 percent;
    • Operating (non-GAAP): $5.39, up 14 percent;
  • Net income:
    • GAAP: $5.8 billion, up 6 percent;
    • Operating (non-GAAP): $6.1 billion, up 10 percent;
  • Gross profit margin:
    • GAAP: 51.8 percent, up 1.8 points;
    • Operating (non-GAAP): 52.3 percent, up 2.1 points;
  • Revenue of $29.3 billion, down 1 percent, flat adjusting for currency:
    • Up 1 percent excluding divested RSS business adjusting for currency;
  • Free cash flow of $9.5 billion, up $0.6 billion;
  • Software revenue up 3 percent, up 4 percent adjusting for currency;
  • Services revenue down 2 percent, down 1 percent adjusting for currency;
  • Services backlog of $140 billion, flat, up $1 billion adjusting for currency;
  • Systems and Technology revenue down 1 percent, up 4 percent excluding RSS:
    • System z mainframe up 56 percent.

Full-Year 2012:

  • Diluted EPS, up double-digits for 10th consecutive year:
    • GAAP: $14.37, up 10 percent;
    • Operating (non-GAAP): $15.25, up 13 percent;
  • Net income:
    • GAAP: $16.6 billion, up 5 percent;
    • Operating (non-GAAP): $17.6 billion, up 8 percent;
  • Revenue of $104.5 billion, down 2 percent, flat adjusting for currency;
  • Free cash flow of $18.2 billion, up $1.6 billion;
  • Growth markets revenue up 4 percent, up 7 percent adjusting for currency:
    • BRIC countries up 7 percent, up 12 percent adjusting for currency;
  • Business analytics revenue up 13 percent;
  • Smarter Planet revenue up more than 25 percent;
  • Cloud revenue up 80 percent.

Full-Year 2013 Expectation:

  • GAAP EPS of at least $15.53 and operating (non-GAAP) EPS of at least $16.70.

IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced fourth-quarter 2012 diluted earnings of $5.13 per share, compared with diluted earnings of $4.62 per share in the fourth quarter of 2011, an increase of 11 percent. Operating (non-GAAP) diluted earnings were $5.39 per share, compared with operating diluted earnings of $4.71 per share in the fourth quarter of 2011, an increase of 14 percent.

Fourth-quarter net income was $5.8 billion compared with $5.5 billion in the fourth quarter of 2011, an increase of 6 percent. Operating (non-GAAP) net income was $6.1 billion compared with $5.6 billion in the fourth quarter of 2011, an increase of 10 percent.

Total revenues for the fourth quarter of 2012 of $29.3 billion decreased 1 percent (flat adjusting for currency) from the fourth quarter of 2011. Without the impact of the divested Retail Store Solutions (RSS) business, revenue increased 1 percent, adjusting for currency.

"We achieved record profit, earnings per share and free cash flow in 2012. Our performance in the fourth quarter and for the full year was driven by our strategic growth initiatives -- growth markets, analytics, cloud computing, Smarter Planet solutions -- which support our continued shift to higher-value businesses,” said Ginni Rometty, IBM chairman, president and chief executive officer.

”Looking ahead, we continue to invest to deliver innovations for the enterprise in key areas such as big data, mobile solutions, social business and security, while expanding into new markets and reaching new clients. We are well on track toward our long-term roadmap for operating EPS of at least $20 in 2015.”

Fourth-Quarter GAAP - Operating (non-GAAP) Reconciliation

Fourth-quarter operating (non-GAAP) diluted earnings exclude $0.26 per share of net charges: $0.21 per share for the amortization of purchased intangible assets and other acquisition-related charges, and $0.05 per share for retirement-related items driven by changes to plan assets and liabilities primarily related to market performance.

Full-Year 2013 Expectation

IBM said that it expects to deliver full-year 2013 GAAP earnings per share of at least $15.53; and operating (non-GAAP) earnings per share of at least $16.70. The 2013 operating (non-GAAP) earnings exclude $1.17 per share of charges for amortization of purchased intangible assets, other acquisition-related charges, and retirement-related items driven by changes to plan assets and liabilities primarily related to market performance.

Geographic Regions

The Americas’ fourth-quarter revenues were $12.5 billion, flat (up 1 percent, adjusting for currency) from the 2011 period. Revenues from Europe/Middle East/Africa were $9.1 billion, down 5 percent (down 3 percent, adjusting for currency). Asia-Pacific revenues increased 4 percent (up 5 percent, adjusting for currency) to $7.0 billion. OEM revenues were $679 million, down 5 percent compared with the 2011 fourth quarter.

Growth Markets

Revenues from the company’s growth markets increased 7 percent. Revenues in the BRIC countries — Brazil, Russia, India and China — increased 11 percent (up 14 percent, adjusting for currency).

Services

Global Technology Services segment revenues decreased 2 percent (flat adjusting for currency) to $10.3 billion. Global Business Services segment revenues were down 3 percent (down 2 percent, adjusting for currency) at $4.7 billion.

Pre-tax income from Global Technology Services increased 5 percent; pre-tax margin increased to 19.2 percent. Global Business Services pre-tax income was flat; pre-tax margin increased to 17.2 percent.

The estimated services backlog at December 31 was $140 billion, flat (up $1 billion, adjusting for currency).

Software

Revenues from the Software segment were $7.9 billion, an increase of 3 percent (up 4 percent, adjusting for currency) from the fourth quarter of 2011. Software pre-tax income of $4.0 billion increased 8 percent year over year.

Revenues from IBM’s key middleware products, which include WebSphere, Information Management, Tivoli, Lotus and Rational products, were $5.5 billion, an increase of 5 percent (up 6 percent, adjusting for currency) versus the fourth quarter of 2011. Operating systems revenues of $709 million were flat (up 1 percent, adjusting for currency) compared with the prior-year quarter.

Revenues from the WebSphere family of software products increased 11 percent year over year. Information Management software revenues increased 2 percent. Revenues from Tivoli software increased 4 percent. Revenues from Lotus software increased 9 percent, and Rational software increased 12 percent.

Hardware

Revenues from the Systems and Technology segment totaled $5.8 billion for the quarter, down 1 percent from the fourth quarter of 2011. Excluding Retail Store Solutions (RSS), revenues were up 4 percent. Systems and Technology pre-tax income was $1.0 billion, an increase of 23 percent.

Total systems revenues, excluding RSS, increased 4 percent. Revenues from System z mainframe server products increased 56 percent compared with the year-ago period; revenue in the growth markets increased 68 percent. Total delivery of System z computing power, as measured in MIPS (millions of instructions per second), increased 66 percent versus the prior year and represented the largest MIPS shipment quarter in the company’s history. New workload specialty engines, including Linux, represented one-half of the MIPS shipped. Revenues from Power Systems decreased 19 percent compared with the 2011 period. Revenues from System x decreased 2 percent. Revenues from System Storage decreased 5 percent. Revenues from Retail Store Solutions decreased $239 million year over year as a result of the divestiture in the third quarter. Revenues from Microelectronics OEM increased 4 percent.

Financing

Global Financing segment revenues were down 2 percent (down 1 percent, adjusting for currency) in the fourth quarter to $535 million. Pre-tax income for the segment increased 1 percent to $518 million.

Gross Profit

The company’s total gross profit margin was 51.8 percent in the 2012 fourth quarter compared with 49.9 percent in the 2011 fourth-quarter period. Total operating (non-GAAP) gross profit margin was 52.3 percent in the 2012 fourth quarter compared with 50.2 percent in the 2011 fourth-quarter period, with increases in Services, Software and Hardware.

Expense

Total expense and other income decreased 2 percent to $7.3 billion compared with the prior-year period. S,G&A expense of $5.9 billion decreased 3 percent year over year compared with prior-year expense. R,D&E expense of $1.6 billion increased 2 percent compared with the year-ago period. Intellectual property and custom development income decreased to $227 million compared with $253 million a year ago. Other (income) and expense was income of $47 million compared with prior-year income of $44 million. Interest expense decreased to $109 million compared with $113 million in the prior year.

Total operating (non-GAAP) expense and other income decreased 2 percent to $7.2 billion compared with the prior-year period. Operating (non-GAAP) S,G&A expense of $5.8 billion decreased 3 percent year over year compared with prior-year expense. Operating (non-GAAP) R,D&E expense of $1.6 billion increased 1 percent compared with the year-ago period.

***

Pre-tax income increased 8 percent to $7.8 billion; total operating (non-GAAP) pre-tax income increased 10 percent to $8.1 billion. Pre-tax margin was 26.7 percent, up 2.1 points; total operating (non-GAAP) pre-tax margin was 27.7 percent, up 2.6 points.

IBM’s tax rate was 25.5 percent, up 1.0 points year over year; total operating (non-GAAP) tax rate was 24.4 percent, flat compared to the year-ago period.

Net income margin increased 1.3 points to 19.9 percent; total operating (non-GAAP) net income margin was 20.9 percent, an increase of 1.9 points.

The weighted-average number of diluted common shares outstanding in the fourth-quarter 2012 was 1.14 billion compared with 1.19 billion shares in the same period of 2011.

In the quarter, IBM generated free cash flow of $9.5 billion excluding Global Financing receivables, up $0.6 billion year over year.

Full-Year 2012 Results

Net income for the year ended December 31, 2012 was $16.6 billion compared with $15.9 billion in the prior year, an increase of 5 percent. Operating (non-GAAP) net income was $17.6 billion compared with $16.3 billion in 2011, an increase of 8 percent.

Diluted earnings were $14.37 per share compared with $13.06 per diluted share in 2011, an increase of 10 percent. Operating (non-GAAP) diluted earnings were $15.25 per share, compared with operating diluted earnings of $13.44 per share in 2011, an increase of 13 percent. This was the company’s 10th consecutive year of double-digit EPS growth.

Revenues for 2012 totaled $104.5 billion, a decrease of 2 percent (flat adjusting for currency), compared with $106.9 billion in 2011.

GAAP - Operating (non-GAAP) Reconciliation

Operating (non-GAAP) diluted earnings for the year exclude $0.88 per share of net charges: $0.55 per share for the amortization of purchased intangible assets and other acquisition-related charges, and $0.33 per share for retirement-related items driven by changes to plan assets and liabilities primarily related to market performance.

Geographic Regions

From a geographic perspective, the Americas’ full-year revenues were $44.6 billion, a decrease of 1 percent (flat adjusting for currency) from the 2011 period. Revenues from Europe/Middle East/Africa were $31.8 billion, a decrease of 6 percent (down 1 percent, adjusting for currency). Asia-Pacific revenues increased 3 percent to $25.9 billion. OEM revenues were $2.2 billion, down 18 percent compared with 2011.

Growth Markets

Revenues from the company’s growth markets increased 4 percent (up 7 percent, adjusting for currency), and represents 24 percent of IBM’s total geographic revenue. Revenues in the BRIC countries — Brazil, Russia, India and China — increased 7 percent (up 12 percent, adjusting for currency).

Segments

Total Global Services revenues decreased 2 percent (flat adjusting for currency). Revenues from the Global Technology Services segment totaled $40.2 billion, a decrease of 2 percent (up 1 percent, adjusting for currency) compared with 2011. Revenues from the Global Business Services segment were $18.6 billion, down 4 percent (down 2 percent, adjusting for currency). Software segment revenues in 2012 totaled $25.4 billion, an increase of 2 percent (up 4 percent, adjusting for currency). Systems and Technology segment revenues were $17.7 billion, a decrease of 7 percent (down 6 percent, adjusting for currency); excluding Retail Store Solutions, revenues were down 5 percent (down 4 percent adjusting for currency). Global Financing segment revenues totaled $2.0 billion, a decrease of 4 percent (down 1 percent, adjusting for currency).

***

The company’s total gross profit margin was 48.1 percent in 2012 compared with 46.9 percent in 2011. Overall gross profit margins improved year over year for the 9th consecutive year. Total operating (non-GAAP) gross profit margin was 48.7 percent in the 2012 period compared with 47.2 percent in the 2011 period, with increases in Services and Software.

The weighted-average number of diluted common shares outstanding in 2012 was 1.16 billion compared with 1.21 billion shares in 2011. As of December 31, 2012, there were 1.12 billion basic common shares outstanding.

Debt, including Global Financing, totaled $33.3 billion, compared with $31.3 billion at year-end 2011. From a management segment view, Global Financing debt totaled $24.5 billion versus $23.3 billion at year-end 2011, resulting in a debt-to-equity ratio of 7.0 to 1. Non-global financing debt totaled $8.8 billion, an increase of $0.8 billion since year-end 2011, resulting in a debt-to-capitalization ratio of 36.1 percent from 32.0 percent.

IBM ended 2012 with $11.1 billion of cash on hand and generated free cash flow of $18.2 billion excluding Global Financing receivables, up approximately $1.6 billion year over year. The company returned $15.8 billion to shareholders through $3.8 billion in dividends and $12.0 billion of share repurchases. The company’s balance sheet remains strong and is well positioned to support the business over the long term.

Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements

Except for the historical information and discussions contained herein, statements contained in this release may constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are based on the company’s current assumptions regarding future business and financial performance. These statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially, including the following: a downturn in economic environment and corporate IT spending budgets; the company’s failure to meet growth and productivity objectives, a failure of the company’s innovation initiatives; risks from investing in growth opportunities; failure of the company’s intellectual property portfolio to prevent competitive offerings and the failure of the company to obtain necessary licenses; cybersecurity and data privacy considerations; fluctuations in financial results and purchases, impact of local legal, economic, political and health conditions; adverse effects from environmental matters, tax matters and the company’s pension plans; ineffective internal controls; the company’s use of accounting estimates; the company’s ability to attract and retain key personnel and its reliance on critical skills; impacts of relationships with critical suppliers and business with government clients; currency fluctuations and customer financing risks; impact of changes in market liquidity conditions and customer credit risk on receivables; reliance on third party distribution channels; the company’s ability to successfully manage acquisitions and alliances; risk factors related to IBM securities; and other risks, uncertainties and factors discussed in the company’s Form 10-Q, Form 10-K and in the company’s other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or in materials incorporated therein by reference. Any forward-looking statement in this release speaks only as of the date on which it is made. The company assumes no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements.

Presentation of Information in this Press Release

In an effort to provide investors with additional information regarding the company’s results as determined by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), the company has also disclosed in this press release the following non-GAAP information which management believes provides useful information to investors:

IBM results and expectations –

  • presenting operating (non-GAAP) earnings per share amounts and related income statement items;
  • presenting non-global financing debt-to-capitalization ratio;
  • adjusting for free cash flow;
  • adjusting for currency (i.e., at constant currency);
  • adjusting for the divestiture of RSS.

The rationale for management’s use of non-GAAP measures is included as part of the supplementary materials presented within the fourth-quarter earnings materials. These materials are available on the IBM investor relations Web site at www.ibm.com/investor and are being included in Attachment II (“Non-GAAP Supplementary Materials”) to the Form 8-K that includes this press release and is being submitted today to the SEC.

Conference Call and Webcast

IBM’s regular quarterly earnings conference call is scheduled to begin at 4:30 p.m. EST, today. The Webcast may be viewed at www.ibm.com/investor/4q12. Presentation charts will be available on the Web site shortly before the Webcast.

Financial Results Below (certain amounts may not add due to use of rounded numbers; percentages presented are calculated from the underlying whole-dollar amounts).

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL RESULTS
(Dollars in millions except per share amounts)
 
  Three Months Ended   Twelve Months Ended
December 31, December 31,
    Percent     Percent
2012 2011 Change 2012 2011 Change
REVENUE
 
Global Technology Services $ 10,284 $ 10,452 -1.6 % $ 40,236 $ 40,879 -1.6 %
Gross profit margin 37.6 % 36.6 % 36.6 % 35.0 %
 
Global Business Services 4,720 4,877 -3.2 % 18,566 19,284 -3.7 %
Gross profit margin 29.9 % 29.3 % 30.0 % 28.8 %
 
Software 7,915 7,648 3.5 % 25,448 24,944 2.0 %
Gross profit margin 90.6 % 89.8 % 88.7 % 88.5 %
 
System and Technology 5,763 5,803 -0.7 % 17,667 18,985 -6.9 %
Gross profit margin 44.1 % 40.5 % 39.1 % 39.8 %
 
Global Financing 535 548 -2.3 % 2,013 2,102 -4.2 %
Gross profit margin 43.8 % 49.7 % 46.5 % 49.8 %
 
Other 87 159 -45.3 % 577 722 -20.1 %
Gross profit margin -73.2 % -11.0 % -71.6 % -54.5 %
 
TOTAL REVENUE 29,304 29,486 -0.6 % 104,507 106,916 -2.3 %
 
 
GROSS PROFIT 15,167 14,722 3.0 % 50,298 50,138 0.3 %
Gross profit margin 51.8 % 49.9 % 48.1 % 46.9 %
 
 
EXPENSE AND OTHER INCOME
 
S,G&A 5,921 6,076 -2.6 % 23,553 23,594 -0.2 %
Expense to revenue 20.2 % 20.6 % 22.5 % 22.1 %
 
R,D&E 1,580 1,555 1.6 % 6,302 6,258 0.7 %
Expense to revenue 5.4 % 5.3 % 6.0 % 5.9 %
 
Intellectual property
and custom development
income (227 ) (253 ) -10.1 % (1,074 ) (1,108 ) -3.0 %
 
Other (income)and expense (47 ) (44 ) 7.3 % (843 ) (20 ) NM
 
Interest expense 109 113 -3.8 % 459 411 11.8 %
 
TOTAL EXPENSE AND
OTHER INCOME 7,336 7,448 -1.5 % 28,396 29,135 -2.5 %
Expense to revenue 25.0 % 25.3 % 27.2 % 27.3 %
 
INCOME BEFORE
INCOME TAXES 7,831 7,274 7.7 % 21,902 21,003 4.3 %
Pre-tax margin 26.7 % 24.7 % 21.0 % 19.6 %
 
Provision for income taxes 1,998 1,784 12.0 % 5,298 5,148 2.9 %
Effective tax rate 25.5 % 24.5 % 24.2 % 24.5 %
 
NET INCOME $ 5,833   $ 5,490   6.3 % $ 16,604   $ 15,855   4.7 %
Net income margin 19.9 % 18.6 % 15.9 % 14.8 %
 
 
EARNINGS PER SHARE
OF COMMON STOCK:
ASSUMING DILUTION $ 5.13 $ 4.62 11.0 % $ 14.37 $ 13.06 10.0 %
BASIC $ 5.19 $ 4.68 10.9 % $ 14.53 $ 13.25 9.7 %
 
WEIGHTED-AVERAGE NUMBER
OF COMMON SHARES OUT-
STANDING (M's):
ASSUMING DILUTION 1,136.4 1,188.7 1,155.4 1,213.8
BASIC 1,124.7 1,172.2 1,142.5 1,197.0
 
NM - - Not Meaningful
 
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION
 
  At   At
(Dollars in Millions) December 31, December 31,
2012 2011
ASSETS:
 
Current Assets:
Cash and cash equivalents $ 10,412 $ 11,922
Marketable securities 717 --
Notes and accounts receivable - trade
(net of allowances of $255 in 2012 and $256 in 2011) 10,667 11,179
Short-term financing receivables
(net of allowances of $288 in 2012 and $311 in 2011) 18,038 16,901
Other accounts receivable
(net of allowances of $17 in 2012 and $11 in 2011) 1,873 1,481
Inventories, at lower of average cost or market:
Finished goods 475 589
Work in process and raw materials   1,812     2,007  
Total inventories 2,287 2,595
Deferred taxes 1,415 1,601
Prepaid expenses and other current assets   4,024     5,249  
Total Current Assets 49,433 50,928
 
Property, plant and equipment 40,501 40,124
Less: Accumulated depreciation   26,505     26,241  
Property, plant and equipment - net 13,996 13,883
Long-term financing receivables
(net of allowances of $66 in 2012 and $38 in 2011) 12,812 10,776
Prepaid pension assets 945 2,843
Deferred taxes 3,973 3,503
Goodwill 29,247 26,213
Intangible assets - net 3,787 3,392
Investments and sundry assets   5,021     4,895  
Total Assets $ 119,213   $ 116,433  
 
LIABILITIES:
 
Current Liabilities:
Taxes $ 4,948 $ 3,313
Short-term debt 9,181 8,463
Accounts payable 7,952 8,517
Compensation and benefits 4,745 5,099
Deferred income 11,952 12,197
Other accrued expenses and liabilities   4,847     4,535  
Total Current Liabilities 43,625 42,123
 
Long-term debt 24,088 22,857
Retirement and nonpension postretirement
benefit obligations 20,418 18,374
Deferred income 4,491 3,847
Other liabilities   7,607     8,996  
Total Liabilities 100,229 96,197
 
EQUITY:
IBM Stockholders' Equity:
Common stock 50,110 48,129
Retained earnings 117,641 104,857
Treasury stock -- at cost (123,131 ) (110,963 )
Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss)   (25,759 )   (21,885 )
Total IBM stockholders' equity 18,860 20,138
 
Noncontrolling interests   124     97  
Total Equity   18,984     20,236  
Total Liabilities and Equity $ 119,213   $ 116,433  
 
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
CASH FLOW ANALYSIS
 
  Three Months Ended   Twelve Months Ended
(Dollars in Millions) December 31, December 31,
2012   2011 2012   2011
 
Net Cash from Operating Activities per GAAP: $ 6,346 $ 7,097 $ 19,586 $ 19,846
 
Less: the change in Global Financing (GF)
Receivables   (4,151 )   (2,927 )   (2,906 )   (817 )
Net Cash from Operating Activities
(Excluding GF Receivables) 10,497 10,024 22,492 20,663
 
Capital Expenditures, Net (981 ) (1,059 ) (4,307 ) (4,059 )
 
Free Cash Flow
(Excluding GF Receivables) 9,515 8,965 18,185 16,604
 
Acquisitions (1,455 ) (1,588 ) (3,722 ) (1,811 )
Divestitures 13 10 599 14
Dividends (957 ) (880 ) (3,773 ) (3,473 )
Share Repurchase (3,006 ) (3,581 ) (11,995 ) (15,046 )
Non-GF Debt (1,571 ) 599 713 1,692
Other (includes GF Receivables, and
GF Debt) (3,664 ) (2,906 ) (802 ) 2,291
 
Change in Cash, Cash Equivalents and
Short-term Marketable Securities   ($1,125 ) $ 619     ($794 ) $ 271  
 
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
SEGMENT DATA
 
  FOURTH-QUARTER 2012
(Dollars in Millions)   Pre-tax  
Revenue Income/ Pre-tax
External   Internal   Total (Loss) Margin
SEGMENTS
 
Global Technology Services $ 10,284 $ 297 $ 10,581 $ 2,027 19.2 %
Y-T-Y change -1.6 % -0.6 % -1.6 % 5.0 %
 
Global Business Services 4,720 181 4,901 841 17.2 %
Y-T-Y change -3.2 % -5.9 % -3.3 % 0.1 %
 
Software 7,915 815 8,730 4,017 46.0 %
Y-T-Y change 3.5 % -4.2 % 2.7 % 8.3 %
 
Systems and Technology 5,763 186 5,949 974 16.4 %
Y-T-Y change -0.7 % 0.0 % -0.7 % 23.2 %
 
Global Financing 535 568 1,103 518 46.9 %
Y-T-Y change -2.3 % -0.1 % -1.2 % 0.7 %
 
TOTAL REPORTABLE SEGMENTS $ 29,217 $ 2,048 $ 31,265 $ 8,377 26.8 %
Y-T-Y change -0.4 % -2.4 % -0.5 % 7.6 %
 
Eliminations / Other 87 (2,048 ) (1,961 ) (546 )
 
TOTAL IBM CONSOLIDATED $ 29,304 $ 0 $ 29,304 $ 7,831 26.7 %
Y-T-Y change -0.6 % -0.6 % 7.7 %
 
 

 

FOURTH-QUARTER 2011

(Dollars in Millions) Pre-tax
Revenue Income/ Pre-tax

External

Internal

Total (Loss) Margin
SEGMENTS
 
Global Technology Services $ 10,452 $ 299 $ 10,751 $ 1,930 18.0 %
 
Global Business Services 4,877 193 5,069 841 16.6 %
 
Software 7,648 851 8,499 3,710 43.7 %
 
Systems and Technology 5,803 186 5,989 790 13.2 %
 
Global Financing 548 569 1,116 514 46.1 %
 
TOTAL REPORTABLE SEGMENTS $ 29,328 $ 2,098 $ 31,425 $ 7,786 24.8 %
 
Eliminations / Other 159 (2,098 ) (1,939 ) (512 )
 
TOTAL IBM CONSOLIDATED $ 29,486 $ 0 $ 29,486 $ 7,274 24.7 %
 
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
SEGMENT DATA
 
  TWELVE-MONTHS 2012
(Dollars in Millions)   Pre-tax  
Revenue Income/ Pre-tax
External   Internal   Total (Loss) Margin
SEGMENTS
 
Global Technology Services $ 40,236 $ 1,166 $ 41,402 $ 6,961 16.8 %
Y-T-Y change -1.6 % -6.2 % -1.7 % 10.8 %
 
Global Business Services 18,566 719 19,286 2,983 15.5 %
Y-T-Y change -3.7 % -9.7 % -4.0 % -0.8 %
 
Software 25,448 3,274 28,722 10,810 37.6 %
Y-T-Y change 2.0 % -0.1 % 1.8 % 8.4 %
 
Systems and Technology 17,667 676 18,343 1,227 6.7 %
Y-T-Y change -6.9 % -19.3 % -7.5 % -24.9 %
 
Global Financing 2,013 2,060 4,073 2,034 49.9 %
Y-T-Y change -4.2 % -1.6 % -2.9 % 1.1 %
 
TOTAL REPORTABLE SEGMENTS $ 103,930 $ 7,896 $ 111,826 $ 24,015 21.5 %
Y-T-Y change -2.1 % -4.3 % -2.3 % 4.8 %
 
Eliminations / Other 577 (7,896 ) (7,319 ) (2,113 )
 
TOTAL IBM CONSOLIDATED $ 104,507 $ 0 $ 104,507 $ 21,902 21.0 %
Y-T-Y change -2.3 % -2.3 % 4.3 %
 
 
TWELVE-MONTHS 2011
(Dollars in Millions) Pre-tax
Revenue Income/ Pre-tax
External Internal Total (Loss) Margin
SEGMENTS
 
Global Technology Services $ 40,879 $ 1,242 $ 42,121 $ 6,284 14.9 %
 
Global Business Services 19,284 797 20,081 3,006 15.0 %
 
Software 24,944 3,276 28,219 9,970 35.3 %
 
Systems and Technology 18,985 838 19,823 1,633 8.2 %
 
Global Financing 2,102 2,092 4,195 2,011 47.9 %
 
TOTAL REPORTABLE SEGMENTS $ 106,194 $ 8,246 $ 114,440 $ 22,904 20.0 %
 
Eliminations / Other 722 (8,246 ) (7,524 ) (1,901 )
 
TOTAL IBM CONSOLIDATED $ 106,916 $ 0 $ 106,916 $ 21,003 19.6 %
 
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
U.S. GAAP TO OPERATING RESULTS RECONCILIATION
(Dollars in millions except per share amounts)
 
  FOURTH-QUARTER 2012
  Acquisition-   Retirement-  
Related Related Operating
GAAP Adjustments* Adjustments** (Non-GAAP)
Gross Profit $ 15,167 $ 100 $ 60 $ 15,327
 
Gross Profit Margin 51.8 % 0.3Pts 0.2Pts 52.3 %
 
S,G&A 5,921 (91 ) (29 ) 5,801
 
R,D&E 1,580 0 6 1,586
 
Other (Income) & Expense (47 ) (7 ) 0 (54 )
 
Total Expense & Other (Income) 7,336 (98 ) (23 ) 7,215
 
Pre-Tax Income 7,831 198 83 8,112
 
Pre-Tax Income Margin 26.7 % 0.7Pts 0.3Pts 27.7 %
 
Provision for Income Taxes*** 1,998 (45 ) 30 1,983
 
Effective Tax Rate 25.5 % -1.2Pts 0.1Pts 24.4 %
 
Net Income 5,833 243 53 6,129
 
Net Income Margin 19.9 % 0.8Pts 0.2Pts 20.9 %
 
Diluted Earnings Per Share $ 5.13 $ 0.21 $ 0.05 $ 5.39
 
 
FOURTH-QUARTER 2011
Acquisition- Retirement-
Related Related Operating
GAAP Adjustments* Adjustments** (Non-GAAP)
Gross Profit $ 14,722 $ 81 ($10 ) $ 14,793
 
Gross Profit Margin 49.9 % 0.3Pts -0.0Pts 50.2 %
 
S,G&A 6,076 (82 ) 2 5,996
 
R,D&E 1,555 0 23 1,578
 
Other (Income) & Expense (44 ) (2 ) 0 (46 )
 
Total Expense & Other (Income) 7,448 (85 ) 25 7,388
 
Pre-Tax Income 7,274 166 (35 ) 7,405
 
Pre-Tax Income Margin 24.7 % 0.6Pts -0.1Pts 25.1 %
 
Provision for Income Taxes*** 1,784 47 (24 ) 1,808
 
Effective Tax Rate 24.5 % 0.1Pts -0.2Pts 24.4 %
 
Net Income 5,490 119 (12 ) 5,597
 
Net Income Margin 18.6 % 0.4Pts -0.0Pts 19.0 %
 
Diluted Earnings Per Share $ 4.62 $ 0.10 ($0.01 ) $ 4.71
* Includes amortization of acquired intangible assets and other acquisition-related charges.
** Includes retirement-related items driven by changes to plan assets and liabilities primarily related to market performance.
*** Tax impact on operating (non-GAAP) pre-tax income is calculated under the same accounting principles applied to the GAAP pre-tax income which employs an annual effective tax rate method to the results.
 
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
U.S. GAAP TO OPERATING RESULTS RECONCILIATION
(Dollars in millions except per share amounts)
 
  TWELVE-MONTHS 2012
  Acquisition-   Retirement-  
Related Related Operating
GAAP Adjustments* Adjustments** (Non-GAAP)
Gross Profit $ 50,298 $ 376 $ 264 $ 50,938
 
Gross Profit Margin 48.1 % 0.4Pts 0.3Pts 48.7 %
 
S,G&A 23,553 (349 ) (294 ) 22,910
 
R,D&E 6,302 0 20 6,322
 
Other (Income) & Expense (843 ) (13 ) 0 (857 )
 
Total Expense & Other (Income) 28,396 (363 ) (274 ) 27,760
 
Pre-Tax Income 21,902 739 538 23,179
 
Pre-Tax Income Margin 21.0 % 0.7Pts 0.5Pts 22.2 %
 
Provision for Income Taxes*** 5,298 98 156 5,552
 
Effective Tax Rate 24.2 % -0.4Pts 0.1Pts 24.0 %
 
Net Income 16,604 641 381 17,627
 
Net Income Margin 15.9 % 0.6Pts 0.4Pts 16.9 %
 
Diluted Earnings Per Share $ 14.37 $ 0.55 $ 0.33 $ 15.25
 
 
TWELVE-MONTHS 2011
Acquisition- Retirement-
Related Related Operating
GAAP Adjustments* Adjustments** (Non-GAAP)
Gross Profit $ 50,138 $ 341 $ 2 $ 50,481
 
Gross Profit Margin 46.9 % 0.3Pts 0.0Pts 47.2 %
 
S,G&A 23,594 (309 ) (13 ) 23,272
 
R,D&E 6,258 0 88 6,345
 
Other (Income) & Expense (20 ) (25 ) 0 (45 )
 
Total Expense & Other (Income) 29,135 (334 ) 74 28,875
 
Pre-Tax Income 21,003 675 (72 ) 21,605
 
Pre-Tax Income Margin 19.6 % 0.6Pts -0.1Pts 20.2 %
 
Provision for Income Taxes*** 5,148 179 (40 ) 5,287
 
Effective Tax Rate 24.5 % 0.1Pts -0.1Pts 24.5 %
 
Net Income 15,855 495 (32 ) 16,318
 
Net Income Margin 14.8 % 0.5Pts -0.0Pts 15.3 %
 
Diluted Earnings Per Share $ 13.06 $ 0.41 ($0.03 ) $ 13.44

* Includes amortization of acquired intangible assets and other acquisition-related charges.
** Includes retirement-related items driven by changes to plan assets and liabilities primarily related to market performance.
*** Tax impact on operating (non-GAAP) pre-tax income is calculated under the same accounting principles applied to the GAAP pre-tax income which employs an annual effective tax rate method to the results.

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@ThingsExpo Stories
The 3rd International Internet of @ThingsExpo, co-located with the 16th International Cloud Expo - to be held June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY - announces that its Call for Papers is now open. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the biggest idea since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago.
The security devil is always in the details of the attack: the ones you've endured, the ones you prepare yourself to fend off, and the ones that, you fear, will catch you completely unaware and defenseless. The Internet of Things (IoT) is nothing if not an endless proliferation of details. It's the vision of a world in which continuous Internet connectivity and addressability is embedded into a growing range of human artifacts, into the natural world, and even into our smartphones, appliances, and physical persons. In the IoT vision, every new "thing" - sensor, actuator, data source, data con...
Cultural, regulatory, environmental, political and economic (CREPE) conditions over the past decade are creating cross-industry solution spaces that require processes and technologies from both the Internet of Things (IoT), and Data Management and Analytics (DMA). These solution spaces are evolving into Sensor Analytics Ecosystems (SAE) that represent significant new opportunities for organizations of all types. Public Utilities throughout the world, providing electricity, natural gas and water, are pursuing SmartGrid initiatives that represent one of the more mature examples of SAE. We have s...
How do APIs and IoT relate? The answer is not as simple as merely adding an API on top of a dumb device, but rather about understanding the architectural patterns for implementing an IoT fabric. There are typically two or three trends: Exposing the device to a management framework Exposing that management framework to a business centric logic Exposing that business layer and data to end users. This last trend is the IoT stack, which involves a new shift in the separation of what stuff happens, where data lives and where the interface lies. For instance, it's a mix of architectural styles ...
The Internet of Things is tied together with a thin strand that is known as time. Coincidentally, at the core of nearly all data analytics is a timestamp. When working with time series data there are a few core principles that everyone should consider, especially across datasets where time is the common boundary. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Scott, Director of Enterprise Strategy & Architecture at MapR Technologies, discussed single-value, geo-spatial, and log time series data. By focusing on enterprise applications and the data center, he will use OpenTSDB as an example t...
An entirely new security model is needed for the Internet of Things, or is it? Can we save some old and tested controls for this new and different environment? In his session at @ThingsExpo, New York's at the Javits Center, Davi Ottenheimer, EMC Senior Director of Trust, reviewed hands-on lessons with IoT devices and reveal a new risk balance you might not expect. Davi Ottenheimer, EMC Senior Director of Trust, has more than nineteen years' experience managing global security operations and assessments, including a decade of leading incident response and digital forensics. He is co-author of t...
The Internet of Things will greatly expand the opportunities for data collection and new business models driven off of that data. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Esmeralda Swartz, CMO of MetraTech, discussed how for this to be effective you not only need to have infrastructure and operational models capable of utilizing this new phenomenon, but increasingly service providers will need to convince a skeptical public to participate. Get ready to show them the money!
The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jeff Kaplan, Managing Director of THINKstrategies, will examine why IT must finally fulfill its role in support of its SBUs or face a new round of...
One of the biggest challenges when developing connected devices is identifying user value and delivering it through successful user experiences. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Mike Kuniavsky, Principal Scientist, Innovation Services at PARC, described an IoT-specific approach to user experience design that combines approaches from interaction design, industrial design and service design to create experiences that go beyond simple connected gadgets to create lasting, multi-device experiences grounded in people's real needs and desires.
Enthusiasm for the Internet of Things has reached an all-time high. In 2013 alone, venture capitalists spent more than $1 billion dollars investing in the IoT space. With "smart" appliances and devices, IoT covers wearable smart devices, cloud services to hardware companies. Nest, a Google company, detects temperatures inside homes and automatically adjusts it by tracking its user's habit. These technologies are quickly developing and with it come challenges such as bridging infrastructure gaps, abiding by privacy concerns and making the concept a reality. These challenges can't be addressed w...
The Domain Name Service (DNS) is one of the most important components in networking infrastructure, enabling users and services to access applications by translating URLs (names) into IP addresses (numbers). Because every icon and URL and all embedded content on a website requires a DNS lookup loading complex sites necessitates hundreds of DNS queries. In addition, as more internet-enabled ‘Things' get connected, people will rely on DNS to name and find their fridges, toasters and toilets. According to a recent IDG Research Services Survey this rate of traffic will only grow. What's driving t...
Connected devices and the Internet of Things are getting significant momentum in 2014. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Hunter, Chief Scientist & Technology Evangelist at Greenwave Systems, examined three key elements that together will drive mass adoption of the IoT before the end of 2015. The first element is the recent advent of robust open source protocols (like AllJoyn and WebRTC) that facilitate M2M communication. The second is broad availability of flexible, cost-effective storage designed to handle the massive surge in back-end data in a world where timely analytics is e...
Scott Jenson leads a project called The Physical Web within the Chrome team at Google. Project members are working to take the scalability and openness of the web and use it to talk to the exponentially exploding range of smart devices. Nearly every company today working on the IoT comes up with the same basic solution: use my server and you'll be fine. But if we really believe there will be trillions of these devices, that just can't scale. We need a system that is open a scalable and by using the URL as a basic building block, we open this up and get the same resilience that the web enjoys.
We are reaching the end of the beginning with WebRTC, and real systems using this technology have begun to appear. One challenge that faces every WebRTC deployment (in some form or another) is identity management. For example, if you have an existing service – possibly built on a variety of different PaaS/SaaS offerings – and you want to add real-time communications you are faced with a challenge relating to user management, authentication, authorization, and validation. Service providers will want to use their existing identities, but these will have credentials already that are (hopefully) i...
"Matrix is an ambitious open standard and implementation that's set up to break down the fragmentation problems that exist in IP messaging and VoIP communication," explained John Woolf, Technical Evangelist at Matrix, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
P2P RTC will impact the landscape of communications, shifting from traditional telephony style communications models to OTT (Over-The-Top) cloud assisted & PaaS (Platform as a Service) communication services. The P2P shift will impact many areas of our lives, from mobile communication, human interactive web services, RTC and telephony infrastructure, user federation, security and privacy implications, business costs, and scalability. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Robin Raymond, Chief Architect at Hookflash, will walk through the shifting landscape of traditional telephone and voice services ...
Explosive growth in connected devices. Enormous amounts of data for collection and analysis. Critical use of data for split-second decision making and actionable information. All three are factors in making the Internet of Things a reality. Yet, any one factor would have an IT organization pondering its infrastructure strategy. How should your organization enhance its IT framework to enable an Internet of Things implementation? In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, James Kirkland, Chief Architect for the Internet of Things and Intelligent Systems at Red Hat, described how to revolutioniz...
Bit6 today issued a challenge to the technology community implementing Web Real Time Communication (WebRTC). To leap beyond WebRTC’s significant limitations and fully leverage its underlying value to accelerate innovation, application developers need to consider the entire communications ecosystem.
The definition of IoT is not new, in fact it’s been around for over a decade. What has changed is the public's awareness that the technology we use on a daily basis has caught up on the vision of an always on, always connected world. If you look into the details of what comprises the IoT, you’ll see that it includes everything from cloud computing, Big Data analytics, “Things,” Web communication, applications, network, storage, etc. It is essentially including everything connected online from hardware to software, or as we like to say, it’s an Internet of many different things. The difference ...
Cloud Expo 2014 TV commercials will feature @ThingsExpo, which was launched in June, 2014 at New York City's Javits Center as the largest 'Internet of Things' event in the world.