Welcome!

Websphere Authors: Glenn Rossman, Elizabeth White, Yeshim Deniz, Liz McMillan, Roger Strukhoff

Related Topics: Websphere

Websphere: Article

The WebSphere Application Server 5 Web Services Technology Preview

The WebSphere Application Server 5 Web Services Technology Preview

Last month we described two new specifications that define the handling of Web services in J2EE, JSR101/JAX-RPC, and JSR109. Both will be part of the J2EE 1.4 release, which is scheduled to go public by the end of the summer. In this article, we will show an example of an implementation of both new standards, which is provided in the Web Services Tech Preview for WebSphere Application Server 5.

This tech preview comes as a free download from the Web, giving you a head start on the new APIs. We will show you two examples, one that takes you through the creation of a Web service that is offered to external clients, and a second showing how to develop a client to an existing Web service.

We will assume that you are familiar with the basic Web services technologies like SOAP and WSDL. See the Resources section at the end for pointers to more material on those topics. We will also assume that you have read our previous article, "Web Services Standards" (WSDJ, Vol. 2, issue 3), describing the JSR101 and JSR109 specifications, or are otherwise familiar with them.

The WAS 5 Web Services Tech Preview
WebSphere Web Services for J2EE Technology Preview is based on the open-source Apache Axis project as a runtime engine, but also includes some enhancements, such as specialized serializers/deserializers for complex objects to obtain better performance. Axis is SAX-based, which makes it faster than implementations based on DOM parsers. Moreover, the deployment model is different; it follows the JSR109 specification, which Axis does not support.

It is important to note that the preview does not "support Axis"; instead, it supports the new standards and reuses some of the Axis work where it makes sense.

To obtain the tech preview installable package (approx. 10MB), download it from the WebSphere Developer Domain site at www7b.boulder.ibm.com/wsdd/downloads/ web_services.html. Before installing it, you must already have either WebSphere Application Server (WAS) version 5 or WebSphere Application Client version 5 installed. The installation process is pretty straightforward; simply follow the instructions.

For our example, the generated EAR (enterprise application archive) file will be deployed using the usual WAS deployment mechanisms, either through the Admin Console, or via the wsadmin tool. The tech preview installation modifies the WAS administration code so that there are two additional "dialogs" in the WAS Admin Console (and additional prompts using wsadmin). We'll show you what they look like later in the article.

There is not much more to say about the tech preview in particular. It implements both JAX-RPC and JSR109, so all the things we described in our earlier article are supported. Having said that, let's dive into a concrete example.

Creating a New Web Service
There are different approaches to creating a new Web service, depending on your environment and your requirements. If some business function implementation already exists (in the form of a JavaBean or EJB), you would use the so-called bottom-up approach (see Figure 1). The tech preview provides a tool called "Java2WSDL" to generate the WSDL description from existing Java code.

On the other hand, a case may arise in which your Web services interface has already been defined in the form of a WSDL document (for example, if a service interface has been standardized for a particular industry). In this case, you would use the so-called top-down approach (see Figure 2). Again, the tech preview offers a tool to handle automatic generation of code and other artifacts. This tool, called WSDL2Java, not only generates the appropriate deployment descriptors, it can also create the service endpoint interface and an implementation class with stubs for the required methods.

We will take you through an example using the bottom-up approach. We will assume that we have a class called WorkOrderManager that lets you create new WorkOrder objects or retrieve an existing WorkOrder by its number. We will then generate a WSDL file for this Java code using the Java2WSDL tool, followed by the WSDL2Java tool to create the deployment descriptor files. Finally, we will assemble all of these into a Web module and EAR, which we can install into the application server.

The first artifact that we will create is the service endpoint interface (SEI). It represents the Web service's port type to be published and contains all the methods we want to expose (see Listing 1).

Note how the interface extends java.rmi.Remote and how every method throws a java.rmi.Remote Exception. This is mandated by the JAX-RPC specification.

Next is the source code for the WorkOrder class (see Listing 2). What you should note here is that the class implements java.io.Serializable. This is a requirement for a nonbasic Java type that appears on the interface of a Web service (similar to parameters on an EJB's remote interface).

The WorkOrder class will be mapped to an XML Schema by the Java2WSDL tool. This schema then becomes part of the WSDL definition for our Web service.

Finally, Listing 3 shows the code for the WorkOrderManagerImpl class, which implements the service. We kept the code very simple, because we want to focus on the creation of the Web service artifacts here. A real business application would certainly look different.

After you have compiled these three classes (WorkOrder, WorkOrderManager, and WorkOrderManagerImpl), you are ready to generate the WSDL document.

The Java2WSDL Tool
The first of the tech preview tools that we will use is the Java2WSDL tool, which generates the WSDL file from the SEI class. It is located in the <was_install_root>\bin directory.

We assume here that the code exists in the c:\was5tp\tech\preview directory, and that you have added c:\was5tp to your classpath. Make c:\was5tp your current directory and enter this command:

java2wsdl tech.preview.WorkOrderManager

This will create a WSDL file called WorkOrderManager. wsdl. You will receive a message indicating that "the -location was not set,...". The location point of the Web service will be specified when you install the application in WAS, so you can ignore this message for now.

We have now created the contract that our Web service exposes and can use as the input for creating all other artifacts needed to deploy the service.

The WSDL2Java Tool
We will now use the WSDL2Java tool with the generated WorkOrderManager.wsdl file as input to generate the Web service deployment descriptor templates:

wsdl2java -verbose -META-INF-Only
-server-side Bean -output . WorkOrderManager.wsdl

This will create two directories, META-INF and WEB-INF, with the following Web service deployment descriptor files:

  • META-INF:
    -webservicesclient.xml: This file is the deployment descriptor for any client that uses the Web service and runs in a J2EE client container.
    -WorkOrderManager_mapping.xml: This file contains the mapping between a namespace that is used in the WSDL document and the Java package that is used in the Java code.
    -ibm-webservicesclient-bnd.xml: This file is used to create definitions for securely accessing the Web service.
  • WEB-INF:
    -webservices.xml: This is the Web service deployment descriptor that defines the new Web service to the application server.
    -WorkOrderManager_mapping.xml: This file is an exact copy of the one created in the META-INF directory.
    -ibm-webservices-bnd.xml: Again, this file is used if you want to secure your Web service.

    Generally, the files in the META-INF directory are used for a client to the Web service, whereas the files in the WEB-INF directory are used for server-side deployment. The only files defined in the standard are the webservices. xml and webservicesclient.xml deployment descriptors; the other files are specific to WebSphere.

    The only modification you need to make is in the webservices.xml file. Make this change :

    <servlet-link>WorkOrderManager</servlet-link>

    This binds the Web service to a particular implementation, the WorkOrderManager class. We will reuse this value later when we assemble the application (i.e., it will go into the web.xml deployment descriptor for the Web application).

    Creating the EAR File
    Now we can go ahead and assemble the generated files into an archive file that we can install into the application server. Do this using the Application Assembly Tool (AAT) that comes with WAS. You can start it by entering "assembly" on the command line.

    Choose to create a new Web module. Since this is all standard AAT business, we won't describe it in detail here and will simply refer to the AAT documentation for more info. Name the new Web module "WorkOrderManager Web.war".

    Add all of the class files to the new Web module. They go into the \WEB-INF\classes\tech\preview directory. Moreover, you need to add a new Web component, a servlet. Its name is WorkOrderManager (this is referenced from within the webservices.xml file) and its class is tech.preview.WorkOrderManagerImpl. Note that even though this class is not really a servlet, it is defined as one in the Web module deployment descriptor. During deployment the application server will make this class accessible as a Web service (by effectively wrapping it into a servlet that receives the SOAP request and invokes the appropriate method on the bean). Save the new Web module and exit the AAT.

    Now move the WorkOrderManager.wsdl file into the c:\was5tp\WEB-INF directory. On the command line, type the following command to add the remaining files to the module:

    jar -uvf WorkOrderManagerWeb.war WEB-INF/*

    Using the AAT again, create the EAR application (WorkOrderManager.ear) and import the Web module WorkOrderManagerWeb.war. Make its context root "/workorder". This is all business as usual and does not require any special steps for the Web service.

    Installing the Application
    Now you are ready to deploy and install the enterprise application into WebSphere Application Server. As we already mentioned, the installation process is similar to that of any other enterprise application. After installing the technical preview, there are two additional steps. First, the system asks for the location to place the WSDL files. Enter "c:\was5tp" into that field. This will export the resulting WSDL file to the c:\was5tp\WorkOrderManager.ear\WorkOrderManagerWeb.war\ WorkOrderManagerService directory. We will need it later when we create the client.

    The second new step requires information about the protocol, hostname, and port on which the Web service will run. You can leave all the defaults. The WSDL file in the Web module is updated with the new endpoint, and a copy is exported to the defined directory.

    After installing the enterprise application, save the configuration, start the WorkOrderManager.ear application, and your Web service is ready to go!

    Accessing an Existing Web Service
    Now that you have a Web service ready and waiting to be called, we want to create a client to use this service. We will access the service that we just created; however, this could also be any other Web service described by a WSDL document.

    The client interface we will use is based on the JAX-RPC standard, as described earlier. A JAX-RPC-compliant Web service client can run stand-alone or in a J2EE client container. We will keep things simple here by running the client from the command line.

    The only input we will need is the exported WSDL file from the installation of the enterprise archive with the Web service. Feel free to delete the files generated before; they are all safely installed in the application server and we don't need them here anymore. Copy the WorkOrderManager.wsdl file to the c:\was5tp directory. Now use the WSDL2Java tool again to create the client-side bindings for the service: wsdl2java WorkOrderManager.wsdl

    This will create the classes we need on the client side. All of the generated Java files go into the tech\preview directory:

  • WorkOrder.java: This class is generated from the XML Schema for WorkOrder in the XML Schema.
  • WorkOrder_Deser.java.,WorkOrder_Ser.java, WorkOrder_Helper.java: These classes serve as helpers to convert an XML document into a WorkOrder object and vice versa.
  • WorkOrderManager.java: This is the interface of the Web service. (Yes, we had these classes before, but remember that we generate all of this only from the WSDL file.)
  • WorkOrderManagerService.java: This interface extends the javax.xml.rpc.Service interface and provides some convenient methods to obtain proxies to the Web service dynamically.
  • WorkOrderManagerServiceLocator.java: This class is an implementation of the foregoing interface.
  • WorkOrderManagerSoapBindingStub.java: This class represents the actual proxy, but you will never use it directly in your client program.

    The WSDL2Java tool created a number of deployment descriptor files in the META-INF directory. These files would be needed if we were to access the Web service from within a J2EE client container. We already described them earlier when creating the server-side deployment descriptions. We won't need them here, because we will run the client from the command line. (In Java standards lingo, we are using a "J2SE client.")

    Go ahead and compile all of the generated Java files. To do so, you need the following set of JAR files in your classpath. They can be found in the <was_install_root> \lib directory: axis.jar, qname.jar, jaxrpc.jar, j2ee.jar, commons-logging-api.jar, commons-discovery.jar, and saaj.jar.

    And finally, Listing 4 is a small test application that uses the Web service, which creates two new WorkOrder objects and then retrieves one of them.

    Conclusion
    The new standards for providing and consuming Web services will help developers create portable and interoperable Web services applications across a variety of application servers. While this is coming later this year in the J2EE 1.4 specification, IBM provides you with an early implementation of the new standards on top of WebSphere Application Server 5, allowing you to get a head start on becoming familiar with the new APIs. Also later this year, complete tooling will follow as part of WebSphere Studio Application Developer.

    Resources

  • JAX-RPC: http://java.sun.com/xml/jaxrpc
  • JSR109: http://jcp.org/en/jsr/detail?id=109
  • The WAS 5 Web Services Tech Preview: www7b.boulder.ibm.com/wsdd/downloads/ web_services.html
  • WebSphere Version 5 Web Services Handbook: http://publib-b.boulder.ibm.com/Redbooks.nsf/ RedpieceAbstracts/sg246891.html?Open
  • High, R.; Herness, E.; Rochat, K.; Francis, T.; Vignola, C.; and Knutson, J. (2003). Professional IBM WebSphere 5.0 Application Server. Wrox.
  • The IBM developerWorks Web services zone: www.ibm.com/developerworks/webservices
  • More Stories By Andre Tost

    André Tost is a Senior Technical Staff Member in the WebSphere Business Development group where he helps IBM?s Strategic Alliance partners integrate their applications with WebSphere. His special focus is on Web services technology throughout the WebSphere product family. Before his current assignment, he spent ten years in various development and architecture roles in IBM software development, most recently for the WebSphere Business Components product. Originally from Germany, he now lives and works in Rochester, Minnesota.

    Comments (0)

    Share your thoughts on this story.

    Add your comment
    You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

    In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


    @ThingsExpo Stories
    Software AG helps organizations transform into Digital Enterprises, so they can differentiate from competitors and better engage customers, partners and employees. Using the Software AG Suite, companies can close the gap between business and IT to create digital systems of differentiation that drive front-line agility. We offer four on-ramps to the Digital Enterprise: alignment through collaborative process analysis; transformation through portfolio management; agility through process automation and integration; and visibility through intelligent business operations and big data.
    There will be 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020. Today, every manufacturer has a propriety protocol and an app. How do we securely integrate these "things" into our lives and businesses in a way that we can easily control and manage? Even better, how do we integrate these "things" so that they control and manage each other so our lives become more convenient or our businesses become more profitable and/or safe? We have heard that the best interface is no interface. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, Co-Founder & CTO at Octoblu, Inc., will discuss how these devices generate enough data to learn our behaviors and simplify/improve our lives. What if we could connect everything to everything? I'm not only talking about connecting things to things but also systems, cloud services, and people. Add in a little machine learning and artificial intelligence and now we have something interesting...
    Last week, while in San Francisco, I used the Uber app and service four times. All four experiences were great, although one of the drivers stopped for 30 seconds and then left as I was walking up to the car. He must have realized I was a blogger. None the less, the next car was just a minute away and I suffered no pain. In this article, my colleague, Ved Sen, Global Head, Advisory Services Social, Mobile and Sensors at Cognizant shares his experiences and insights.
    We are reaching the end of the beginning with WebRTC and real systems using this technology have begun to appear. One challenge that faces every WebRTC deployment (in some form or another) is identity management. For example, if you have an existing service – possibly built on a variety of different PaaS/SaaS offerings – and you want to add real-time communications you are faced with a challenge relating to user management, authentication, authorization, and validation. Service providers will want to use their existing identities, but these will have credentials already that are (hopefully) irreversibly encoded. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, will look at how this identity problem can be solved and discuss ways to use existing web identities for real-time communication.
    From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, will share some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, an Open Source Cloud Communications company that helps the shift from legacy IN/SS7 telco networks to IP-based cloud comms. An early investor in multiple start-ups, he still finds time to code for his companies and contribute to open source projects.
    Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. It also ensured scalability and better service for customers, including MUY! Companies, one of the country's largest franchise restaurant companies with 232 Pizza Hut locations. This is one example of WebRTC adoption today, but the potential is limitless when powered by IoT. Attendees will learn real-world benefits of WebRTC and explore future possibilities, as WebRTC and IoT intersect to improve customer service.
    The Internet of Things (IoT) promises to create new business models as significant as those that were inspired by the Internet and the smartphone 20 and 10 years ago. What business, social and practical implications will this phenomenon bring? That's the subject of "Monetizing the Internet of Things: Perspectives from the Front Lines," an e-book released today and available free of charge from Aria Systems, the leading innovator in recurring revenue management.
    The Internet of Things will put IT to its ultimate test by creating infinite new opportunities to digitize products and services, generate and analyze new data to improve customer satisfaction, and discover new ways to gain a competitive advantage across nearly every industry. In order to help corporate business units to capitalize on the rapidly evolving IoT opportunities, IT must stand up to a new set of challenges.
    There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. In her session at 6th Big Data Expo®, Hannah Smalltree, Director at Treasure Data, to discuss how IoT, Big Data and deployments are processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other machines.
    All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices – computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors – connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be!
    P2P RTC will impact the landscape of communications, shifting from traditional telephony style communications models to OTT (Over-The-Top) cloud assisted & PaaS (Platform as a Service) communication services. The P2P shift will impact many areas of our lives, from mobile communication, human interactive web services, RTC and telephony infrastructure, user federation, security and privacy implications, business costs, and scalability. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Erik Lagerway, Co-founder of Hookflash, will walk through the shifting landscape of traditional telephone and voice services to the modern P2P RTC era of OTT cloud assisted services.
    While great strides have been made relative to the video aspects of remote collaboration, audio technology has basically stagnated. Typically all audio is mixed to a single monaural stream and emanates from a single point, such as a speakerphone or a speaker associated with a video monitor. This leads to confusion and lack of understanding among participants especially regarding who is actually speaking. Spatial teleconferencing introduces the concept of acoustic spatial separation between conference participants in three dimensional space. This has been shown to significantly improve comprehension and conference efficiency.
    The Internet of Things is tied together with a thin strand that is known as time. Coincidentally, at the core of nearly all data analytics is a timestamp. When working with time series data there are a few core principles that everyone should consider, especially across datasets where time is the common boundary. In his session at Internet of @ThingsExpo, Jim Scott, Director of Enterprise Strategy & Architecture at MapR Technologies, will discuss single-value, geo-spatial, and log time series data. By focusing on enterprise applications and the data center, he will use OpenTSDB as an example to explain some of these concepts including when to use different storage models.
    SYS-CON Events announced today that Gridstore™, the leader in software-defined storage (SDS) purpose-built for Windows Servers and Hyper-V, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 15th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on November 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Gridstore™ is the leader in software-defined storage purpose built for virtualization that is designed to accelerate applications in virtualized environments. Using its patented Server-Side Virtual Controller™ Technology (SVCT) to eliminate the I/O blender effect and accelerate applications Gridstore delivers vmOptimized™ Storage that self-optimizes to each application or VM across both virtual and physical environments. Leveraging a grid architecture, Gridstore delivers the first end-to-end storage QoS to ensure the most important App or VM performance is never compromised. The storage grid, that uses Gridstore’s performance optimized nodes or capacity optimized nodes, starts with as few a...
    The Transparent Cloud-computing Consortium (abbreviation: T-Cloud Consortium) will conduct research activities into changes in the computing model as a result of collaboration between "device" and "cloud" and the creation of new value and markets through organic data processing High speed and high quality networks, and dramatic improvements in computer processing capabilities, have greatly changed the nature of applications and made the storing and processing of data on the network commonplace. These technological reforms have not only changed computers and smartphones, but are also changing the data processing model for all information devices. In particular, in the area known as M2M (Machine-To-Machine), there are great expectations that information with a new type of value can be produced using a variety of devices and sensors saving/sharing data via the network and through large-scale cloud-type data processing. This consortium believes that attaching a huge number of devic...
    Innodisk is a service-driven provider of industrial embedded flash and DRAM storage products and technologies, with a focus on the enterprise, industrial, aerospace, and defense industries. Innodisk is dedicated to serving their customers and business partners. Quality is vitally important when it comes to industrial embedded flash and DRAM storage products. That’s why Innodisk manufactures all of their products in their own purpose-built memory production facility. In fact, they designed and built their production center to maximize manufacturing efficiency and guarantee the highest quality of our products.
    All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - computers, smartphones, tablets, and sensors - connected to the Internet by 2020. This number will continue to grow at a rapid pace for the next several decades. Over the summer Gartner released its much anticipated annual Hype Cycle report and the big news is that Internet of Things has now replaced Big Data as the most hyped technology. Indeed, we're hearing more and more about this fascinating new technological paradigm. Every other IT news item seems to be about IoT and its implications on the future of digital business.
    Can call centers hang up the phones for good? Intuitive Solutions did. WebRTC enabled this contact center provider to eliminate antiquated telephony and desktop phone infrastructure with a pure web-based solution, allowing them to expand beyond brick-and-mortar confines to a home-based agent model. Download Slide Deck: ▸ Here
    BSQUARE is a global leader of embedded software solutions. We enable smart connected systems at the device level and beyond that millions use every day and provide actionable data solutions for the growing Internet of Things (IoT) market. We empower our world-class customers with our products, services and solutions to achieve innovation and success. For more information, visit www.bsquare.com.
    With the iCloud scandal seemingly in its past, Apple announced new iPhones, updates to iPad and MacBook as well as news on OSX Yosemite. Although consumers will have to wait to get their hands on some of that new stuff, what they can get is the latest release of iOS 8 that Apple made available for most in-market iPhones and iPads. Originally announced at WWDC (Apple’s annual developers conference) in June, iOS 8 seems to spearhead Apple’s newfound focus upon greater integration of their products into everyday tasks, cross-platform mobility and self-monitoring. Before you update your device, here is a look at some of the new features and things you may want to consider from a mobile security perspective.