|By Herbjorn Wilhelmsen||
|September 14, 2009 05:30 PM EDT||
Services are useful, but they come with a price tag. The cost of developing a service is higher than the cost of developing a traditional (non-service-oriented) application, primarily due to the extra work and infrastructure required. Another common concern when creating and consuming services is the possibility of a performance hit. Together these issues hint that even if you've decided to wholeheartedly adopt SOA, you may not want or need to move all your functionality into services. This is where the application Service Encapsulation becomes a focal point as we need specific criteria to determine what should and should not be encapsulated into services.
To make this determination, we will take a look at three different aspects:
-- acceptable reasons for creating a service
-- costs associated with creating a service
-- and, of course, the performance issue
After covering these aspects specifically in relation to single-purpose services, I will introduce an implementation strategy.
Reasons to Create a Service
Any service that is created needs to have a cleanly defined responsibility. The capabilities it exposes should clearly fall within this defined responsibility. In the case of a single-purpose service, it can be argued that it may be better to implement single-purpose logic as a non-service-oriented application. Let's take a closer look at some of the more important considerations:
When logic is incorporated into a service, it is potentially available for reuse by multiple applications, some of which may themselves be services. Reuse leads to reduced development and maintenance effort, which translates into a lower cost of ownership and can further result in improved quality and lower risks [REF-2]. Reuse is also an important part of the agile IT enterprise. Composing existing logic to solve larger business problems is more efficient than writing all of the logic from scratch.
Alas, enabling this kind of reuse is not as easy as just incorporating logic into services; it often requires a lot of thinking and design effort to create a service that is truly reusable. But, it can be done. With regards to single-purpose services, reuse is usually not a consideration. These services are specific to parent business process logic and therefore serve just that one purpose. Figure 1 illustrates some common service categories [REF-3] and how they relate to each other and business processes.
(Figure 1: A Service Inventory typically consists of services from multiple categories. Process-specific services can not be reused when implementing support for other business processes. The more process-agnostic a service is the higher it's reusability.)
As just stated, services that cannot be repurposed to automate another business process, as per Non-Agnostic Context, are not considered reusable. However, an important realization here is that logic that solves only one large business problem may still be used by multiple consumers.
Let's explore this notion with a simple analogy. Due to technological advances, the manner in which people perform their jobs today is very different compared to 20 years ago and in the years to come we will probably witness an increase in the rate of technological progress. One kind of change that we have seen is that companies want to enable employees to perform their jobs using different tools in different settings. When we are at our desk we typically expect rich functionality and applications that make the best of our hardware, such as advanced large screens with high resolution and many colors and advanced keyboards with many functions, to name but a few.
On the other hand, we want to be able to do at least some of the same tasks when we are traveling and in that setting we may only have access to, say, a Smartphone. This type of mobile device is much more difficult to work with than a desktop application, and it requires a very different kind of user interface. Processing power, development environments and support for frameworks, among other things, are more limited for Smartphone applications. In spite of these differences, the two applications (desktop and mobile) can still be designed to automate the same task (see Figure 2). As a result, both applications could call the same single-purpose service (which actually does lead to a form of reuse).
(Figure 2: Alice, Bob and Carol work for different departments but are responsible for different activities that make up a business process. Some of the process steps need IT support and some don't. Carol owns a desktop application and a smartphone application. She creates a service to encapsulate the process-related logic that she is responsible for and lets her applications call the service.)
Even though reuse is an important criterion for creating a service it is by no means the only one. In a recent blog post [REF-4] Paul C Brown argues that the main criteria for determining if a capability ought to be put inside a service (apart from reuse) are multiple providers and isolation against change. These are discussed briefly below.
The reuse of a service can be thought of as the existence of two or more service consumers. The reverse of this is when you have two or more providers of the service
(Figure 3: Reuse compared to multiple providers.)
Choosing between providers, calling multiple providers, or merging together results from different providers might be non-trivial tasks, and applications can be shielded from this kind of logic by placing it inside a service. Corporate mergers and acquisitions often lead to this kind of scenario, but it can also occur within a company when multiple departments work with overlapping tasks and information. Due to the commonality of this situation, there are design patterns available that describe exactly how to construct such services (e.g. Enterprise Domain Repository [REF-5]).
A problem that must be handled when using multiple providers is that of partial failures. As the number of network links and composed services increases, the probability for failure in one of these links or services increases. To address this, a single-purpose service might securely store messages and make a number of retries to accomplish the delivery of messages to composed services, as per Reliable Messaging. Shielding a consumer from these complex tasks is a good enough reason to create a service, even if it cannot be reused.
Isolation Against Change
Being able to handle change successfully is one of the biggest promises of service-orientation. SOA can help us achieve increased business or organizational agility [REF-6] in several ways, one of which is by developing services and consumers in parallel. This approach requires that we (the service and consumer developers) have first have agreed upon the contract.
Another way is to create new functionality by composing existing services, either our own or services provided by someone else. Yet another important aspect is enabling change by limiting the parts that need development effort to bring about the desired changes. This means making sure that when you change something that the change only affects a limited and preferably isolated part of your software assets. All these issues relate to being able to develop new functionality or change existing functionality with less effort and in a shorter period of time.
To be able to quickly adapt to change can be essential for a business. As Jim Webber so eloquently puts it: "Business people are spaghetti-heads" [REF-7]! Behind this statement lies the profound understanding of the fact that business people need to make new decisions - sometimes even unexpected decisions - in the light of new business demands and opportunities.
Changes in a business process can lead to changes in services, consumers, or both, but there are also justifiable reasons for changing a service even when the business process it encapsulates has not changed.
When implementing a service, there are a variety of realization options ranging from buying or building applications hosted on premise via different hosting options and placing services in the cloud to options that haven't even been conceived yet [REF-8]. These ever-evolving options lead to never-ending opportunities for change that are further influenced by the cost associated with the options, your company's business strategy, and many other factors.
One factor worth calling out is the business strategy, because this strategy itself can be subject to change over time. When a company's strategy changes so will the strategic importance of its services and other IT assets. What this means is that outsourcing may become an option for a particular service today (e.g. to cut costs) but it may be then be necessary to in-source it tomorrow when it becomes more strategically significant (Figure 4)
By encapsulating logic into a service, these kinds of changes will become much easier to handle. A single-purpose service might swap out the current implementation of one of it's composed services with an alternative implementation without changing its contract. To be able to accomplish this you may have to apply Data Format Transformation inside the single-purpose service.
(Figure 4: By creating a service that encapsulates single-purpose functionality it becomes possible to quickly outsource or insource functionality - or choose between any of the options in between - without affecting the consumer)
Although it can be tempting to always plan for this kind of flexibility, it is important to keep in mind that agility may not be the most important factor for all processes or companies. Balancing the need for business flexibility in proportion to the cost of IT flexibility can become the true key to success.
One of the biggest impacts of the Internet of Things is and will continue to be on data; specifically data volume, management and usage. Companies are scrambling to adapt to this new and unpredictable data reality with legacy infrastructure that cannot handle the speed and volume of data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and president of Infobright, will discuss how companies need to rethink their data infrastructure to participate in the IoT, including: Data storage: Understanding the kinds of data: structured, unstructured, big/small? Analytics: What kinds and how responsiv...
Mar. 1, 2015 05:00 AM EST Reads: 2,281
Since 2008 and for the first time in history, more than half of humans live in urban areas, urging cities to become “smart.” Today, cities can leverage the wide availability of smartphones combined with new technologies such as Beacons or NFC to connect their urban furniture and environment to create citizen-first services that improve transportation, way-finding and information delivery. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Laetitia Gazel-Anthoine, CEO of Connecthings, will focus on successful use cases.
Mar. 1, 2015 04:00 AM EST Reads: 2,876
Sensor-enabled things are becoming more commonplace, precursors to a larger and more complex framework that most consider the ultimate promise of the IoT: things connecting, interacting, sharing, storing, and over time perhaps learning and predicting based on habits, behaviors, location, preferences, purchases and more. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Tom Wesselman, Director of Communications Ecosystem Architecture at Plantronics, will examine the still nascent IoT as it is coalescing, including what it is today, what it might ultimately be, the role of wearable tech, and technology gaps stil...
Mar. 1, 2015 03:30 AM EST Reads: 2,412
The true value of the Internet of Things (IoT) lies not just in the data, but through the services that protect the data, perform the analysis and present findings in a usable way. With many IoT elements rooted in traditional IT components, Big Data and IoT isn’t just a play for enterprise. In fact, the IoT presents SMBs with the prospect of launching entirely new activities and exploring innovative areas. CompTIA research identifies several areas where IoT is expected to have the greatest impact.
Mar. 1, 2015 02:00 AM EST Reads: 3,012
Wearable devices have come of age. The primary applications of wearables so far have been "the Quantified Self" or the tracking of one's fitness and health status. We propose the evolution of wearables into social and emotional communication devices. Our BE(tm) sensor uses light to visualize the skin conductance response. Our sensors are very inexpensive and can be massively distributed to audiences or groups of any size, in order to gauge reactions to performances, video, or any kind of presentation. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Jocelyn Scheirer, CEO & Founder of Bionolux, will discuss ho...
Mar. 1, 2015 12:00 AM EST Reads: 2,940
SYS-CON Events announced today that GENBAND, a leading developer of real time communications software solutions, has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's WebRTC Summit, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. The GENBAND team will be on hand to demonstrate their newest product, Kandy. Kandy is a communications Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) that enables companies to seamlessly integrate more human communications into their Web and mobile applications - creating more engaging experiences for their customers and boosting collaboration and productiv...
Feb. 28, 2015 05:00 PM EST Reads: 1,372
Roberto Medrano, Executive Vice President at SOA Software, had reached 30,000 page views on his home page - http://RobertoMedrano.SYS-CON.com/ - on the SYS-CON family of online magazines, which includes Cloud Computing Journal, Internet of Things Journal, Big Data Journal, and SOA World Magazine. He is a recognized executive in the information technology fields of SOA, internet security, governance, and compliance. He has extensive experience with both start-ups and large companies, having been involved at the beginning of four IT industries: EDA, Open Systems, Computer Security and now SOA.
Feb. 28, 2015 04:00 PM EST Reads: 1,122
From telemedicine to smart cars, digital homes and industrial monitoring, the explosive growth of IoT has created exciting new business opportunities for real time calls and messaging. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Ivelin Ivanov, CEO and Co-Founder of Telestax, shared some of the new revenue sources that IoT created for Restcomm – the open source telephony platform from Telestax. Ivelin Ivanov is a technology entrepreneur who founded Mobicents, an Open Source VoIP Platform, to help create, deploy, and manage applications integrating voice, video and data. He is the co-founder of TeleStax, a...
Feb. 28, 2015 03:30 PM EST Reads: 3,992
The industrial software market has treated data with the mentality of “collect everything now, worry about how to use it later.” We now find ourselves buried in data, with the pervasive connectivity of the (Industrial) Internet of Things only piling on more numbers. There’s too much data and not enough information. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Bob Gates, Global Marketing Director, GE’s Intelligent Platforms business, to discuss how realizing the power of IoT, software developers are now focused on understanding how industrial data can create intelligence for industrial operations. Imagine ...
Feb. 28, 2015 03:15 PM EST Reads: 1,256
Operational Hadoop and the Lambda Architecture for Streaming Data Apache Hadoop is emerging as a distributed platform for handling large and fast incoming streams of data. Predictive maintenance, supply chain optimization, and Internet-of-Things analysis are examples where Hadoop provides the scalable storage, processing, and analytics platform to gain meaningful insights from granular data that is typically only valuable from a large-scale, aggregate view. One architecture useful for capturing and analyzing streaming data is the Lambda Architecture, representing a model of how to analyze rea...
Feb. 28, 2015 02:00 PM EST Reads: 1,227
SYS-CON Events announced today that Vitria Technology, Inc. will exhibit at SYS-CON’s @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Vitria will showcase the company’s new IoT Analytics Platform through live demonstrations at booth #330. Vitria’s IoT Analytics Platform, fully integrated and powered by an operational intelligence engine, enables customers to rapidly build and operationalize advanced analytics to deliver timely business outcomes for use cases across the industrial, enterprise, and consumer segments.
Feb. 28, 2015 01:45 PM EST Reads: 1,158
The explosion of connected devices / sensors is creating an ever-expanding set of new and valuable data. In parallel the emerging capability of Big Data technologies to store, access, analyze, and react to this data is producing changes in business models under the umbrella of the Internet of Things (IoT). In particular within the Insurance industry, IoT appears positioned to enable deep changes by altering relationships between insurers, distributors, and the insured. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Sick, a Senior Manager and Big Data Architect within Ernst and Young's Financial Servi...
Feb. 28, 2015 12:00 PM EST Reads: 1,177
SYS-CON Events announced today that Open Data Centers (ODC), a carrier-neutral colocation provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Open Data Centers is a carrier-neutral data center operator in New Jersey and New York City offering alternative connectivity options for carriers, service providers and enterprise customers.
Feb. 28, 2015 12:00 PM EST Reads: 1,853
When it comes to the Internet of Things, hooking up will get you only so far. If you want customers to commit, you need to go beyond simply connecting products. You need to use the devices themselves to transform how you engage with every customer and how you manage the entire product lifecycle. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sean Lorenz, Technical Product Manager for Xively at LogMeIn, will show how “product relationship management” can help you leverage your connected devices and the data they generate about customer usage and product performance to deliver extremely compelling and reliabl...
Feb. 28, 2015 12:00 PM EST Reads: 1,298
SYS-CON Events announced today that CodeFutures, a leading supplier of database performance tools, has been named a “Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9–11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York, NY. CodeFutures is an independent software vendor focused on providing tools that deliver database performance tools that increase productivity during database development and increase database performance and scalability during production.
Feb. 28, 2015 11:00 AM EST Reads: 2,442
The IoT market is projected to be $1.9 trillion tidal wave that’s bigger than the combined market for smartphones, tablets and PCs. While IoT is widely discussed, what not being talked about are the monetization opportunities that are created from ubiquitous connectivity and the ensuing avalanche of data. While we cannot foresee every service that the IoT will enable, we should future-proof operations by preparing to monetize them with extremely agile systems.
Feb. 28, 2015 11:00 AM EST Reads: 1,184
There’s Big Data, then there’s really Big Data from the Internet of Things. IoT is evolving to include many data possibilities like new types of event, log and network data. The volumes are enormous, generating tens of billions of logs per day, which raise data challenges. Early IoT deployments are relying heavily on both the cloud and managed service providers to navigate these challenges. Learn about IoT, Big Data and deployments processing massive data volumes from wearables, utilities and other machines.
Feb. 28, 2015 11:00 AM EST Reads: 1,021
Feb. 28, 2015 10:30 AM EST Reads: 2,439
“In the past year we've seen a lot of stabilization of WebRTC. You can now use it in production with a far greater degree of certainty. A lot of the real developments in the past year have been in things like the data channel, which will enable a whole new type of application," explained Peter Dunkley, Technical Director at Acision, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held Nov 4–6, 2014, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA.
Feb. 28, 2015 10:00 AM EST Reads: 3,242
SYS-CON Events announced today that Intelligent Systems Services will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Established in 1994, Intelligent Systems Services Inc. is located near Washington, DC, with representatives and partners nationwide. ISS’s well-established track record is based on the continuous pursuit of excellence in designing, implementing and supporting nationwide clients’ mission-critical systems. ISS has completed many successful projects in Healthcare, Commercial, Manufacturing, ...
Feb. 28, 2015 10:00 AM EST Reads: 1,205