|By Herbjorn Wilhelmsen||
|September 14, 2009 05:30 PM EDT||
Services are useful, but they come with a price tag. The cost of developing a service is higher than the cost of developing a traditional (non-service-oriented) application, primarily due to the extra work and infrastructure required. Another common concern when creating and consuming services is the possibility of a performance hit. Together these issues hint that even if you've decided to wholeheartedly adopt SOA, you may not want or need to move all your functionality into services. This is where the application Service Encapsulation becomes a focal point as we need specific criteria to determine what should and should not be encapsulated into services.
To make this determination, we will take a look at three different aspects:
-- acceptable reasons for creating a service
-- costs associated with creating a service
-- and, of course, the performance issue
After covering these aspects specifically in relation to single-purpose services, I will introduce an implementation strategy.
Reasons to Create a Service
Any service that is created needs to have a cleanly defined responsibility. The capabilities it exposes should clearly fall within this defined responsibility. In the case of a single-purpose service, it can be argued that it may be better to implement single-purpose logic as a non-service-oriented application. Let's take a closer look at some of the more important considerations:
When logic is incorporated into a service, it is potentially available for reuse by multiple applications, some of which may themselves be services. Reuse leads to reduced development and maintenance effort, which translates into a lower cost of ownership and can further result in improved quality and lower risks [REF-2]. Reuse is also an important part of the agile IT enterprise. Composing existing logic to solve larger business problems is more efficient than writing all of the logic from scratch.
Alas, enabling this kind of reuse is not as easy as just incorporating logic into services; it often requires a lot of thinking and design effort to create a service that is truly reusable. But, it can be done. With regards to single-purpose services, reuse is usually not a consideration. These services are specific to parent business process logic and therefore serve just that one purpose. Figure 1 illustrates some common service categories [REF-3] and how they relate to each other and business processes.
(Figure 1: A Service Inventory typically consists of services from multiple categories. Process-specific services can not be reused when implementing support for other business processes. The more process-agnostic a service is the higher it's reusability.)
As just stated, services that cannot be repurposed to automate another business process, as per Non-Agnostic Context, are not considered reusable. However, an important realization here is that logic that solves only one large business problem may still be used by multiple consumers.
Let's explore this notion with a simple analogy. Due to technological advances, the manner in which people perform their jobs today is very different compared to 20 years ago and in the years to come we will probably witness an increase in the rate of technological progress. One kind of change that we have seen is that companies want to enable employees to perform their jobs using different tools in different settings. When we are at our desk we typically expect rich functionality and applications that make the best of our hardware, such as advanced large screens with high resolution and many colors and advanced keyboards with many functions, to name but a few.
On the other hand, we want to be able to do at least some of the same tasks when we are traveling and in that setting we may only have access to, say, a Smartphone. This type of mobile device is much more difficult to work with than a desktop application, and it requires a very different kind of user interface. Processing power, development environments and support for frameworks, among other things, are more limited for Smartphone applications. In spite of these differences, the two applications (desktop and mobile) can still be designed to automate the same task (see Figure 2). As a result, both applications could call the same single-purpose service (which actually does lead to a form of reuse).
(Figure 2: Alice, Bob and Carol work for different departments but are responsible for different activities that make up a business process. Some of the process steps need IT support and some don't. Carol owns a desktop application and a smartphone application. She creates a service to encapsulate the process-related logic that she is responsible for and lets her applications call the service.)
Even though reuse is an important criterion for creating a service it is by no means the only one. In a recent blog post [REF-4] Paul C Brown argues that the main criteria for determining if a capability ought to be put inside a service (apart from reuse) are multiple providers and isolation against change. These are discussed briefly below.
The reuse of a service can be thought of as the existence of two or more service consumers. The reverse of this is when you have two or more providers of the service
(Figure 3: Reuse compared to multiple providers.)
Choosing between providers, calling multiple providers, or merging together results from different providers might be non-trivial tasks, and applications can be shielded from this kind of logic by placing it inside a service. Corporate mergers and acquisitions often lead to this kind of scenario, but it can also occur within a company when multiple departments work with overlapping tasks and information. Due to the commonality of this situation, there are design patterns available that describe exactly how to construct such services (e.g. Enterprise Domain Repository [REF-5]).
A problem that must be handled when using multiple providers is that of partial failures. As the number of network links and composed services increases, the probability for failure in one of these links or services increases. To address this, a single-purpose service might securely store messages and make a number of retries to accomplish the delivery of messages to composed services, as per Reliable Messaging. Shielding a consumer from these complex tasks is a good enough reason to create a service, even if it cannot be reused.
Isolation Against Change
Being able to handle change successfully is one of the biggest promises of service-orientation. SOA can help us achieve increased business or organizational agility [REF-6] in several ways, one of which is by developing services and consumers in parallel. This approach requires that we (the service and consumer developers) have first have agreed upon the contract.
Another way is to create new functionality by composing existing services, either our own or services provided by someone else. Yet another important aspect is enabling change by limiting the parts that need development effort to bring about the desired changes. This means making sure that when you change something that the change only affects a limited and preferably isolated part of your software assets. All these issues relate to being able to develop new functionality or change existing functionality with less effort and in a shorter period of time.
To be able to quickly adapt to change can be essential for a business. As Jim Webber so eloquently puts it: "Business people are spaghetti-heads" [REF-7]! Behind this statement lies the profound understanding of the fact that business people need to make new decisions - sometimes even unexpected decisions - in the light of new business demands and opportunities.
Changes in a business process can lead to changes in services, consumers, or both, but there are also justifiable reasons for changing a service even when the business process it encapsulates has not changed.
When implementing a service, there are a variety of realization options ranging from buying or building applications hosted on premise via different hosting options and placing services in the cloud to options that haven't even been conceived yet [REF-8]. These ever-evolving options lead to never-ending opportunities for change that are further influenced by the cost associated with the options, your company's business strategy, and many other factors.
One factor worth calling out is the business strategy, because this strategy itself can be subject to change over time. When a company's strategy changes so will the strategic importance of its services and other IT assets. What this means is that outsourcing may become an option for a particular service today (e.g. to cut costs) but it may be then be necessary to in-source it tomorrow when it becomes more strategically significant (Figure 4)
By encapsulating logic into a service, these kinds of changes will become much easier to handle. A single-purpose service might swap out the current implementation of one of it's composed services with an alternative implementation without changing its contract. To be able to accomplish this you may have to apply Data Format Transformation inside the single-purpose service.
(Figure 4: By creating a service that encapsulates single-purpose functionality it becomes possible to quickly outsource or insource functionality - or choose between any of the options in between - without affecting the consumer)
Although it can be tempting to always plan for this kind of flexibility, it is important to keep in mind that agility may not be the most important factor for all processes or companies. Balancing the need for business flexibility in proportion to the cost of IT flexibility can become the true key to success.
More and more brands have jumped on the IoT bandwagon. We have an excess of wearables – activity trackers, smartwatches, smart glasses and sneakers, and more that track seemingly endless datapoints. However, most consumers have no idea what “IoT” means. Creating more wearables that track data shouldn't be the aim of brands; delivering meaningful, tangible relevance to their users should be. We're in a period in which the IoT pendulum is still swinging. Initially, it swung toward "smart for smar...
Oct. 27, 2016 11:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,239
Web Real-Time Communication APIs have quickly revolutionized what browsers are capable of. In addition to video and audio streams, we can now bi-directionally send arbitrary data over WebRTC's PeerConnection Data Channels. With the advent of Progressive Web Apps and new hardware APIs such as WebBluetooh and WebUSB, we can finally enable users to stitch together the Internet of Things directly from their browsers while communicating privately and securely in a decentralized way.
Oct. 27, 2016 11:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,908
In past @ThingsExpo presentations, Joseph di Paolantonio has explored how various Internet of Things (IoT) and data management and analytics (DMA) solution spaces will come together as sensor analytics ecosystems. This year, in his session at @ThingsExpo, Joseph di Paolantonio from DataArchon, will be adding the numerous Transportation areas, from autonomous vehicles to “Uber for containers.” While IoT data in any one area of Transportation will have a huge impact in that area, combining sensor...
Oct. 27, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,148
Intelligent machines are here. Robots, self-driving cars, drones, bots and many IoT devices are becoming smarter with Machine Learning. In her session at @ThingsExpo, Sudha Jamthe, CEO of IoTDisruptions.com, will discuss the next wave of business disruption at the junction of IoT and AI, impacting many industries and set to change our lives, work and world as we know it.
Oct. 27, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 248
With an estimated 50 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2020, several industries will begin to expand their capabilities for retaining end point data at the edge to better utilize the range of data types and sheer volume of M2M data generated by the Internet of Things. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Don DeLoach, CEO and President of Infobright, discussed the infrastructures businesses will need to implement to handle this explosion of data by providing specific use cases for filterin...
Oct. 27, 2016 11:00 AM EDT Reads: 3,051
What happens when the different parts of a vehicle become smarter than the vehicle itself? As we move toward the era of smart everything, hundreds of entities in a vehicle that communicate with each other, the vehicle and external systems create a need for identity orchestration so that all entities work as a conglomerate. Much like an orchestra without a conductor, without the ability to secure, control, and connect the link between a vehicle’s head unit, devices, and systems and to manage the ...
Oct. 27, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,415
Ask someone to architect an Internet of Things (IoT) solution and you are guaranteed to see a reference to the cloud. This would lead you to believe that IoT requires the cloud to exist. However, there are many IoT use cases where the cloud is not feasible or desirable. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products at Bsquare Corporation, will discuss the strategies that exist to extend intelligence directly to IoT devices and sensors, freeing them from the constraints of ...
Oct. 27, 2016 10:15 AM EDT Reads: 3,219
DevOps is being widely accepted (if not fully adopted) as essential in enterprise IT. But as Enterprise DevOps gains maturity, expands scope, and increases velocity, the need for data-driven decisions across teams becomes more acute. DevOps teams in any modern business must wrangle the ‘digital exhaust’ from the delivery toolchain, "pervasive" and "cognitive" computing, APIs and services, mobile devices and applications, the Internet of Things, and now even blockchain. In this power panel at @...
Oct. 27, 2016 09:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,159
@ThingsExpo has been named the Top 5 Most Influential M2M Brand by Onalytica in the ‘Machine to Machine: Top 100 Influencers and Brands.' Onalytica analyzed the online debate on M2M by looking at over 85,000 tweets to provide the most influential individuals and brands that drive the discussion. According to Onalytica the "analysis showed a very engaged community with a lot of interactive tweets. The M2M discussion seems to be more fragmented and driven by some of the major brands present in the...
Oct. 27, 2016 08:45 AM EDT Reads: 11,587
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their backend AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT - especially in the connected home and office. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Kocher, founder and managing director of Grey Heron, explained how Amazon is extending its reach to become a major force in IoT by building on its dominant cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strat...
Oct. 27, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 4,938
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Oct. 27, 2016 07:00 AM EDT Reads: 5,022
You have great SaaS business app ideas. You want to turn your idea quickly into a functional and engaging proof of concept. You need to be able to modify it to meet customers' needs, and you need to deliver a complete and secure SaaS application. How could you achieve all the above and yet avoid unforeseen IT requirements that add unnecessary cost and complexity? You also want your app to be responsive in any device at any time. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Allen, General Manager of...
Oct. 27, 2016 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,068
SYS-CON Events announced today that Streamlyzer will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Streamlyzer is a powerful analytics for video streaming service that enables video streaming providers to monitor and analyze QoE (Quality-of-Experience) from end-user devices in real time.
Oct. 27, 2016 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,095
Cloud based infrastructure deployment is becoming more and more appealing to customers, from Fortune 500 companies to SMEs due to its pay-as-you-go model. Enterprise storage vendors are able to reach out to these customers by integrating in cloud based deployments; this needs adaptability and interoperability of the products confirming to cloud standards such as OpenStack, CloudStack, or Azure. As compared to off the shelf commodity storage, enterprise storages by its reliability, high-availabil...
Oct. 27, 2016 05:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,275
The IoT industry is now at a crossroads, between the fast-paced innovation of technologies and the pending mass adoption by global enterprises. The complexity of combining rapidly evolving technologies and the need to establish practices for market acceleration pose a strong challenge to global enterprises as well as IoT vendors. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Clark Smith, senior product manager for Numerex, will discuss how Numerex, as an experienced, established IoT provider, has embraced a ...
Oct. 27, 2016 05:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,217
The Internet of Things (IoT), in all its myriad manifestations, has great potential. Much of that potential comes from the evolving data management and analytic (DMA) technologies and processes that allow us to gain insight from all of the IoT data that can be generated and gathered. This potential may never be met as those data sets are tied to specific industry verticals and single markets, with no clear way to use IoT data and sensor analytics to fulfill the hype being given the IoT today.
Oct. 27, 2016 04:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,886
Donna Yasay, President of HomeGrid Forum, today discussed with a panel of technology peers how certification programs are at the forefront of interoperability, and the answer for vendors looking to keep up with today's growing industry for smart home innovation. "To ensure multi-vendor interoperability, accredited industry certification programs should be used for every product to provide credibility and quality assurance for retail and carrier based customers looking to add ever increasing num...
Oct. 27, 2016 04:00 AM EDT Reads: 787
In the next forty months – just over three years – businesses will undergo extraordinary changes. The exponential growth of digitization and machine learning will see a step function change in how businesses create value, satisfy customers, and outperform their competition. In the next forty months companies will take the actions that will see them get to the next level of the game called Capitalism. Or they won’t – game over. The winners of today and tomorrow think differently, follow different...
Oct. 27, 2016 03:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,117
“Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CloudBerry Backup is a leading cross-platform cloud backup and disaster recovery solution integrated with major public cloud services, such as Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform.
Oct. 27, 2016 03:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,516
In his general session at 19th Cloud Expo, Manish Dixit, VP of Product and Engineering at Dice, will discuss how Dice leverages data insights and tools to help both tech professionals and recruiters better understand how skills relate to each other and which skills are in high demand using interactive visualizations and salary indicator tools to maximize earning potential. Manish Dixit is VP of Product and Engineering at Dice. As the leader of the Product, Engineering and Data Sciences team a...
Oct. 27, 2016 03:45 AM EDT Reads: 782